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      Recent updates on different methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks: a review

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          Abstract

          Lignocellulosic feedstock materials are the most abundant renewable bioresource material available on earth. It is primarily composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which are strongly associated with each other. Pretreatment processes are mainly involved in effective separation of these complex interlinked fractions and increase the accessibility of each individual component, thereby becoming an essential step in a broad range of applications particularly for biomass valorization. However, a major hurdle is the removal of sturdy and rugged lignin component which is highly resistant to solubilization and is also a major inhibitor for hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose. Moreover, other factors such as lignin content, crystalline, and rigid nature of cellulose, production of post-pretreatment inhibitory products and size of feed stock particle limit the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. This has led to extensive research in the development of various pretreatment processes. The major pretreatment methods include physical, chemical, and biological approaches. The selection of pretreatment process depends exclusively on the application. As compared to the conventional single pretreatment process, integrated processes combining two or more pretreatment techniques is beneficial in reducing the number of process operational steps besides minimizing the production of undesirable inhibitors. However, an extensive research is still required for the development of new and more efficient pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic feedstocks yielding promising results.

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          Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

           N. Mosier (2005)
          Cellulosic plant material represents an as-of-yet untapped source of fermentable sugars for significant industrial use. Many physio-chemical structural and compositional factors hinder the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose present in lignocellulosic biomass. The goal of any pretreatment technology is to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to hydrolysis in order to improve the rate of enzyme hydrolysis and increase yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose or hemicellulose. These methods cause physical and/or chemical changes in the plant biomass in order to achieve this result. Experimental investigation of physical changes and chemical reactions that occur during pretreatment is required for the development of effective and mechanistic models that can be used for the rational design of pretreatment processes. Furthermore, pretreatment processing conditions must be tailored to the specific chemical and structural composition of the various, and variable, sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This paper reviews process parameters and their fundamental modes of action for promising pretreatment methods.
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            Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: A review.

            Biofuel produced from lignocellulosic materials, so-called second generation bioethanol shows energetic, economic and environmental advantages in comparison to bioethanol from starch or sugar. However, physical and chemical barriers caused by the close association of the main components of lignocellulosic biomass, hinder the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The main goal of pretreatment is to increase the enzyme accessibility improving digestibility of cellulose. Each pretreatment has a specific effect on the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin fraction thus, different pretreatment methods and conditions should be chosen according to the process configuration selected for the subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation steps. This paper reviews the most interesting technologies for ethanol production from lignocellulose and it points out several key properties that should be targeted for low-cost and advanced pretreatment processes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Methods for Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Efficient Hydrolysis and Biofuel Production

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                kiranbio@gmail.com
                shaishav.bt@gmail.com
                Journal
                Bioresour Bioprocess
                Bioresour Bioprocess
                Bioresources and Bioprocessing
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                2197-4365
                18 January 2017
                18 January 2017
                2017
                : 4
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Bioconversion Technology Division, Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, 388 120 Gujarat India
                Article
                137
                10.1186/s40643-017-0137-9
                5241333
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001503, Indian Council of Agricultural Research;
                Award ID: VVN/RES/DRET-LBT/2014/3
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001407, Department of Biotechnology , Ministry of Science and Technology;
                Award ID: BT/PR12368/PDB/26/431/2014
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

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