Previously, we demonstrated that a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) supplementation in pregnant and lactating rats exerted both healthy and deleterious programming effects on their offspring. Here, we evaluated whether the administration of GSPE during lactation (100 mg.kg −1.day −1) in rats elicited beneficial effects in their normoweight (STD-GSPE group) and cafeteria-fed obese (CAF-GSPE group) adult male offspring. STD-GSPE and CAF-GSPE offspring showed increased energy expenditure and circulating total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin. However, these rats showed hyperinsulinemia, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance, down-regulated mRNA levels of adiponectin receptors in inguinal white adipose tissue ( Adipor1 and Adipor2) and soleus muscle ( Adipor2), and decreased levels of phosphorylated AMPK, the downstream post-receptor target of adiponectin, in the soleus muscle. These deleterious effects could be related to an increased lipid transfer to the pups through the milk, since GSPE-supplemented dams displayed decreased fat content and increased expression of lipogenic genes in their mammary glands, in addition to increased circulating total adiponectin and non-esterified free fatty acids. In conclusion, maternal intake of GSPE during lactation induced insulin resistance and an adiponectin resistance-like phenotype in their normoweight and obese offspring. These findings raise concerns about the possibility of using GSPE as a nutraceutical supplement during this period.