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      Maternal intake of grape seed procyanidins during lactation induces insulin resistance and an adiponectin resistance-like phenotype in rat offspring

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          Abstract

          Previously, we demonstrated that a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) supplementation in pregnant and lactating rats exerted both healthy and deleterious programming effects on their offspring. Here, we evaluated whether the administration of GSPE during lactation (100 mg.kg −1.day −1) in rats elicited beneficial effects in their normoweight (STD-GSPE group) and cafeteria-fed obese (CAF-GSPE group) adult male offspring. STD-GSPE and CAF-GSPE offspring showed increased energy expenditure and circulating total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin. However, these rats showed hyperinsulinemia, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance, down-regulated mRNA levels of adiponectin receptors in inguinal white adipose tissue ( Adipor1 and Adipor2) and soleus muscle ( Adipor2), and decreased levels of phosphorylated AMPK, the downstream post-receptor target of adiponectin, in the soleus muscle. These deleterious effects could be related to an increased lipid transfer to the pups through the milk, since GSPE-supplemented dams displayed decreased fat content and increased expression of lipogenic genes in their mammary glands, in addition to increased circulating total adiponectin and non-esterified free fatty acids. In conclusion, maternal intake of GSPE during lactation induced insulin resistance and an adiponectin resistance-like phenotype in their normoweight and obese offspring. These findings raise concerns about the possibility of using GSPE as a nutraceutical supplement during this period.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Adiponectin stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase in the hypothalamus and increases food intake.

          Adiponectin has been shown to stimulate fatty acid oxidation and enhance insulin sensitivity through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the peripheral tissues. The effects of adiponectin in the central nervous system, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we show that adiponectin enhances AMPK activity in the arcuate hypothalamus (ARH) via its receptor AdipoR1 to stimulate food intake; this stimulation of food intake by adiponectin was attenuated by dominant-negative AMPK expression in the ARH. Moreover, adiponectin also decreased energy expenditure. Adiponectin-deficient mice showed decreased AMPK phosphorylation in the ARH, decreased food intake, and increased energy expenditure, exhibiting resistance to high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of adiponectin and expression of AdipoR1 in the ARH were increased during fasting and decreased after refeeding. We conclude that adiponectin stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure during fasting through its effects in the central nervous system.
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            Insulin/Foxo1 pathway regulates expression levels of adiponectin receptors and adiponectin sensitivity.

            Adiponectin/Acrp30 is a hormone secreted by adipocytes, which acts as an antidiabetic and antiatherogenic adipokine. We reported previously that AdipoR1 and -R2 serve as receptors for adiponectin and mediate increased fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake by adiponectin. In the present study, we examined the expression levels and roles of AdipoR1/R2 in several physiological and pathophysiological states such as fasting/refeeding, obesity, and insulin resistance. Here we show that the expression of AdipoR1/R2 in insulin target organs, such as skeletal muscle and liver, is significantly increased in fasted mice and decreased in refed mice. Insulin deficiency induced by streptozotocin increased and insulin replenishment reduced the expression of AdipoR1/R2 in vivo. Thus, the expression of AdipoR1/R2 appears to be inversely correlated with plasma insulin levels in vivo. Interestingly, the incubation of hepatocytes or myocytes with insulin reduced the expression of AdipoR1/R2 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Foxo1-dependent pathway in vitro. Moreover, the expressions of AdipoR1/R2 in ob/ob mice were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, which was correlated with decreased adiponectin binding to membrane fractions of skeletal muscle and decreased AMP kinase activation by adiponectin. This adiponectin resistance in turn may play a role in worsening insulin resistance in ob/ob mice. In conclusion, the expression of AdipoR1/R2 appears to be inversely regulated by insulin in physiological and pathophysiological states such as fasting/refeeding, insulin deficiency, and hyper-insulinemia models via the insulin/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Foxo1 pathway and is correlated with adiponectin sensitivity.
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              Adiponectin receptor as a key player in healthy longevity and obesity-related diseases.

              Adiponectin is a fat-derived hormone whose reduction plays central roles in obesity-linked diseases including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. The cloning of Adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 has stimulated adiponectin research, revealing pivotal roles for AdipoRs in pleiotropic adiponectin actions, as well as some postreceptor signaling mechanisms. Adiponectin signaling has thus become one of the major research fields in metabolism and clinical medicine. Studies on AdipoRs will further our understanding of the role of adiponectin in obesity-linked diseases and shortened life span and may guide the design of antidiabetic and antiaging drugs with AdipoR as a target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                antoni.caimari@ctns.cat
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                3 October 2017
                3 October 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Technological Unit of Nutrition and Health. EURECAT-Technology Centre of Catalonia, Reus, Spain
                [2 ]Nutrition and Health Research Group, EURECAT-Technology Centre of Catalonia, Reus, Spain
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2284 9230, GRID grid.410367.7, Nutrigenomics Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ; Tarragona, Spain
                Article
                12597
                10.1038/s41598-017-12597-9
                5626783
                28974704
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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