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      Efecto de la radiación gamma sobre la diferenciación de plantas de caña de azúcar a partir de callos¹

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          Abstract

          Con el objetivo de inducir mutaciones en caña de azúcar, Saccharum sp., para la obtención de plantas resistentes a enfermedades se evaluó el efecto de la radiación gamma sobre la regeneración in vitro de plantas a partir de callos. Se seleccionaron cinco variedades B6749, B7987, PR62258, B4362 y PR641791, las tres primeras susceptibles al mosaico de la caña de azúcar (SCMV) y las dos últimas susceptibles a roya. Callos organogénicos de estas variedades fueron irradiados con cinco dosis de rayos gamma: 0, 2, 4, 8 y 12 kR. El efecto de la radiación sobre la diferenciación de plantas se evaluó a los 90, 120 y 150 días. Las plantas regeneradas fueron trasplantadas al suelo en condiciones de umbráculo para determinar la tasa de supervivencia. El análisis de varianza para los datos de diferenciación mostró diferencias significativas entre variedades y entre dosis. La B6749 tuvo el mayor valor de diferenciación seguida de la B4362. Con base en la distribución de frecuencia en los distintos grados de diferenciación para cada variedad y dosis, se estableció la LD50 para cada variedad, estando en un rango de 2 kR para las variedades más sensibles y entre 4 y 8 kR para las menos sensibles. Dosis entre 2 y 4 kR pueden ser utilizadas con posibilidades de obtener una aceptable tasa de mutaciones

          Translated abstract

          Summary With the objetive of inducing mutation in sugarcane, Saccharum sp., in order to obtain disease resistant plants, the effect of gamma radiation on plants regenerated in vitro from calluses was evaluated. Five varieties were chosen, B6749, B7987, PR62258, B4362 and PR641791, the first three susceptible to the mosaic of sugarcane and the last two susceptible to rust. Organogenic calluses of these varieties were irradiated with five doses of gamma rays: 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 kR. The radiation effect on the differentiation of plants was evaluated at 90, 120 and 150 days. Regenerated plants were transplanted to soil in greenhouse condition to determine survival index. Variance analysis of differentation data showed significant differences between varieties and doses. B6749 had largest differentiation value followed by B4362. Based on the distribution of frequencies of the different degrees of differentiation for each variety and doses, the LD50 was established for each variety, being in a range of 2 kR for more sensitive varieties and between 4 and 8 kR for the less sensible ones. Doses between 2 and 4 kR may be used with good possibilities of obtaining acceptable mutation indexes

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          Somaclonal variation - a novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement.

          It is concluded from a review of the literature that plant cell culture itself generates genetic variability (somaclonal variation). Extensive examples are discussed of such variation in culture subclones and in regenerated plants (somaclones). A number of possible mechanisms for the origin of this phenomenon are considered. It is argued that this variation already is proving to be of significance for plant improvement. In particular the phenomenon may be employed to enhance the exchange required in sexual hybrids for the introgression of desirable alien genes into a crop species. It may also be used to generate variants of a commercial cultivar in high frequency without hybridizing to other genotypes.
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            Induced mutations - A new paradigm in plant breeding

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              Manual on mutation breeding.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                at
                Agronomía Tropical
                Agronomía Trop.
                Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas INIA de Venezuela (Maracay )
                0002-192X
                September 2002
                : 52
                : 3
                : 311-324
                Affiliations
                [1 ] INIA
                Article
                S0002-192X2002000300004
                15edfef3-25b8-4776-91d7-0ca1bb26e933

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0002-192X&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRONOMY

                Horticulture
                Saccharum spp,mutation,gamma radiation;,differentiation,callus,Saccharum spp.;,radiación gamma,callos,mutaciones,diferenciación

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