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      Large-Scale Diffusion Barriers from CVD Grown Graphene

      1 , 2 , 2 , 1 , 2

      Advanced Materials Interfaces

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 36

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          The rise of graphene

          Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
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            Graphene-based composite materials.

            Graphene sheets--one-atom-thick two-dimensional layers of sp2-bonded carbon--are predicted to have a range of unusual properties. Their thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness may rival the remarkable in-plane values for graphite (approximately 3,000 W m(-1) K(-1) and 1,060 GPa, respectively); their fracture strength should be comparable to that of carbon nanotubes for similar types of defects; and recent studies have shown that individual graphene sheets have extraordinary electronic transport properties. One possible route to harnessing these properties for applications would be to incorporate graphene sheets in a composite material. The manufacturing of such composites requires not only that graphene sheets be produced on a sufficient scale but that they also be incorporated, and homogeneously distributed, into various matrices. Graphite, inexpensive and available in large quantity, unfortunately does not readily exfoliate to yield individual graphene sheets. Here we present a general approach for the preparation of graphene-polymer composites via complete exfoliation of graphite and molecular-level dispersion of individual, chemically modified graphene sheets within polymer hosts. A polystyrene-graphene composite formed by this route exhibits a percolation threshold of approximately 0.1 volume per cent for room-temperature electrical conductivity, the lowest reported value for any carbon-based composite except for those involving carbon nanotubes; at only 1 volume per cent, this composite has a conductivity of approximately 0.1 S m(-1), sufficient for many electrical applications. Our bottom-up chemical approach of tuning the graphene sheet properties provides a path to a broad new class of graphene-based materials and their use in a variety of applications.
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              Graphene: Status and Prospects

              Graphene is a wonder material with many superlatives to its name. It is the thinnest material in the universe and the strongest ever measured. Its charge carriers exhibit giant intrinsic mobility, have the smallest effective mass (it is zero) and can travel micrometer-long distances without scattering at room temperature. Graphene can sustain current densities 6 orders higher than copper, shows record thermal conductivity and stiffness, is impermeable to gases and reconciles such conflicting qualities as brittleness and ductility. Electron transport in graphene is described by a Dirac-like equation, which allows the investigation of relativistic quantum phenomena in a bench-top experiment. What are other surprises that graphene keeps in store for us? This review analyses recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Materials Interfaces
                Adv. Mater. Interfaces
                Wiley
                21967350
                September 2015
                September 2015
                August 04 2015
                : 2
                : 14
                : 1500082
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Chemistry; Trinity College; Dublin 2 Ireland
                [2 ]CRANN and AMBER institute; Trinity College; Dublin 2 Ireland
                Article
                10.1002/admi.201500082
                © 2015

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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