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      Evaluating the sustainability of indirect potable reuse and direct potable reuse: a southern Nevada case study


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          This case study presents a framework for evaluating the sustainability of indirect potable reuse (IPR) and direct potable reuse (DPR) in Las Vegas, Nevada. A system dynamics model was developed to simulate population growth, water supply, water quality, energy costs, net present worth (NPW), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The model confirmed that DPR could achieve a net reduction in energy costs of up to US$250 million while still ensuring an adequate water supply. However, the high NPW of DPR ($1.0–$4.0 billion) relative to the status quo IPR approach ($0.6 billion) represents a significant economic hurdle, although future monetization of salt loadings and GHGs could reduce that disparity. DPR with ozone‐biofiltration would also be hindered by an estimated concentration of total dissolved solids of up to 1,300 mg/L. Despite these barriers to implementation in Las Vegas, certain site‐specific conditions may make DPR more attractive in other locations.

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          Most cited references34

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          Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water.

          The drinking water for more than 28 million people was screened for a diverse group of pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and other unregulated organic contaminants. Source water, finished drinking water, and distribution system (tap) water from 19 U.S. water utilities was analyzed for 51 compounds between 2006 and 2007. The 11 most frequently detected compounds were atenolol, atrazine, carbamazepine, estrone, gemfibrozil, meprobamate, naproxen, phenytoin, sulfamethoxazole, TCEP, and trimethoprim. Median concentrations of these compounds were less than 10 ng/L, except for sulfamethoxazole in source water (12 ng/L), TCEP in source water (120 ng/L), and atrazine in source, finished, and distribution system water (32, 49, and 49 ng/L). Atrazine was detected in source waters far removed from agricultural application where wastewater was the only known source of organic contaminants. The occurrence of compounds in finished drinking water was controlled by the type of chemical oxidation (ozone or chlorine) used at each plant. At one drinking water treatment plant, summed monthly concentrations of the detected analytes in source and finished water are reported. Atenolol, atrazine, DEET, estrone, meprobamate, and trimethoprim can serve as indicator compounds representing potential contamination from other pharmaceuticals and EDCs and can gauge the efficacy of treatment processes.
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            Ozonation of drinking water: part II. Disinfection and by-product formation in presence of bromide, iodide or chlorine.

            Ozone is an excellent disinfectant and can even be used to inactivate microorganisms such as protozoa which are very resistant to conventional disinfectants. Proper rate constants for the inactivation of microorganisms are only available for six species (E. coli, Bacillus subtilis spores, Rotavirus, Giardia lamblia cysts, Giardia muris cysts, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts). The apparent activation energy for the inactivation of bacteria is in the same order as most chemical reactions (35-50 kJ mol(-1)), whereas it is much higher for the inactivation of protozoa (80 kJ mol(-1)). This requires significantly higher ozone exposures at low temperatures to get a similar inactivation for protozoa. Even for the inactivation of resistant microorganisms, OH radicals only play a minor role. Numerous organic and inorganic ozonation disinfection/oxidation by-products have been identified. The by-product of main concern is bromate, which is formed in bromide-containing waters. A low drinking water standard of 10 microg l(-1) has been set for bromate. Therefore, disinfection and oxidation processes have to be evaluated to fulfil these criteria. In certain cases, when bromide concentrations are above about 50 microg l(-1), it may be necessary to use control measures to lower bromate formation (lowering of pH, ammonia addition). Iodate is the main by-product formed during ozonation of iodide-containing waters. The reactions involved are direct ozone oxidations. Iodate is considered non-problematic because it is transformed back to iodide endogenically. Chloride cannot be oxidized during ozonation processes under drinking water conditions. Chlorate is only formed if a preoxidation by chlorine and/or chlorine dioxide has occurred. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
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              A system dynamics model to facilitate public understanding of water management options in Las Vegas, Nevada.

              Water managers increasingly are faced with the challenge of building public or stakeholder support for resource management strategies. Building support requires raising stakeholder awareness of resource problems and understanding about the consequences of different policy options. One approach that can help managers communicate with stakeholders is system dynamics modeling. Used interactively in a public forum, a system dynamics model can be used to explain the resource system and illustrate the effects of strategies proposed by managers or suggested by forum participants. This article illustrates the process of building a strategic-level system dynamics model using the case of water management in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of the model was to increase public understanding of the value of water conservation in Las Vegas. The effects of policies on water supply and demand in the system are not straightforward because of the structure of the system. Multiple feedback relationships lead to the somewhat counterintuitive result that reducing residential outdoor water use has a much greater effect on water demand than reducing indoor water use by the same amount. The model output shows this effect clearly. This paper describes the use of the model in research workshops and discusses the potential of this kind of interactive model to stimulate stakeholder interest in the structure of the system, engage participant interest more deeply, and build stakeholder understanding of the basis for management decisions.

                Author and article information

                daniel.gerrity@unlv.edu , daniel.gerrity@snwa.com
                AWWA Water Sci
                AWWA Water Sci
                Awwa Water Science
                John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Hoboken, USA )
                27 August 2019
                Jul-Aug 2019
                : 1
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1002/aws2.v1.4 )
                : e1153
                [ 1 ] Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Construction University of Nevada Las Vegas Nevada
                [ 2 ] Carollo Engineers Las Vegas Nevada
                [ 3 ] School of Public Policy and Leadership University of Nevada Las Vegas Nevada
                [ 4 ] Applied Research and Development Center Southern Nevada Water Authority Las Vegas Nevada
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Daniel Gerrity, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Construction, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 South Maryland Parkway, Box 454015, Las Vegas, NV 89154‐4015.

                Email: daniel.gerrity@ 123456unlv.edu ; daniel.gerrity@ 123456snwa.com

                Author information
                © 2019 The Authors. AWWA Water Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Water Works Association

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 25 February 2019
                : 08 July 2019
                : 23 July 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, Pages: 16, Words: 11578
                Funded by: United States Environmental Protection Agency , open-funder-registry 10.13039/100000139;
                Award ID: R835823
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                July/August 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.1 mode:remove_FC converted:13.11.2019

                direct potable reuse,indirect potable reuse,net present worth,sustainability,system dynamics,water supply


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