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      Trichomonas vaginalis detection in female specimens with cobas® TV/MG for use on the cobas® 6800/8800 systems

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          Abstract

          Trichomoniasis, a common curable sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), is usually asymptomatic. However, symptomatic women may experience vaginal discharge and/or vulvar irritation. This study evaluated cobas® TV/ Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) (Conformité Européene marking for in vitro diagnostic medical devices [CE-IVD]) against other nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detecting TV in female urogenital specimens. Matched de-identified specimens from 412 females were collected. cobas® TV/MG results were compared against a composite reference (CR) of 3 different NAATs for TV (Aptima TV, modified S-DiaMGTV™, and a laboratory-developed test). The overall TV prevalence rate was 6.2%, based on cobas® TV/MG results. Relative to the CR, cobas® TV/MG sensitivity/specificity for the specimen types were endocervical swabs (ES) 100%/99.2%, vaginal swabs (VS) 100%/99.7%, urine (U) 100%/99.7%, and cervical specimens in PreservCyt® solution (PC) 100%/99.5%. There was no significant statistical difference between clinician-collected and self-collected VS ( p = 0.28). Correlation of cobas® TV/MG vs. Aptima TV demonstrated the following positive, negative, and overall percent agreements, respectively: ES 69.0%, 98.7%, and 96.6%; VS 88.9%, 99.5%, and 98.8%; U 100%, 100%, and 100%; and PC 95.5%, 99.0%, and 98.8%. Detection of TV with cobas® TV/MG for use on the cobas® 6800/8800 systems demonstrated excellent performance in female urogenital specimens (overall sensitivity/specificity of 100%/≥99.2%).

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          Most cited references 17

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          Determinants of per-coital-act HIV-1 infectivity among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples.

          Knowledge of factors that affect per-act infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for designing HIV-1 prevention interventions and for the mathematical modeling of the spread of HIV-1. We analyzed data from a prospective study of African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples. We assessed transmissions for linkage within the study partnership, based on HIV-1 sequencing. The primary exposure measure was the HIV-1-seropositive partners' reports of number of sex acts and condom use with their study partner. Of 3297 couples experiencing 86 linked HIV-1 transmissions, the unadjusted per-act risks of unprotected male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) transmission were 0.0019 (95% confidence interval [CI], .0010-.0037) and 0.0010 (95% CI, .00060-.0017), respectively. After adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA of the HIV-1-infected partner and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus and age of the HIV-1-uninfected partner, we calculated the relative risk (RR) for MTF versus FTM transmission to be 1.03 (P = .93). Each log(10) increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA increased the per-act risk of transmission by 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.2-3.8). Self-reported condom use reduced the per-act risk by 78% (RR = 0.22 [95% CI, .11-.42]). Modifiable risk factors for HIV-1 transmission were plasma HIV-1 RNA level and condom use, and, in HIV-1-uninfected partners, herpes simplex virus 2 infection, genital ulcers, Trichomonas vaginalis, vaginitis or cervicitis, and male circumcision.
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            Comparison of APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis transcription-mediated amplification to wet mount microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in men and women.

            We evaluated the performance characteristics of APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis (ATV) transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) for diagnosis of T vaginalis (TV) infection from female vaginal swab, endocervical swab, and urine specimens and from male urethral swab and urine specimens. Performance of ATV TMA was compared with wet mount microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In all, 296 female and 298 male subjects who attended the Jefferson County Health Department sexually transmitted diseases clinic were enrolled in the study and provided specimens for each test. Results were analyzed using 3 interpretative algorithms. For women, vaginal swab ATV TMA was significantly more sensitive than wet mount or culture. In male subjects, urethral swab ATV TMA was significantly more sensitive than culture or PCR. ATV TMA provides a sensitive, commercially available nucleic acid amplification test for improved diagnosis of TV in male and female patients.
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              Trichomonas vaginalis: a review of epidemiologic, clinical and treatment issues

              Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is likely the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. It is as an important source of reproductive morbidity, a facilitator of HIV transmission and acquisition, and thus it is an important public health problem. Despite its importance in human reproductive health and HIV transmission, it is not a reportable disease and surveillance is not generally done. This is problematic since most persons infected with TV are asymptomatic. Metronidazole (MTZ) has been the treatment of choice for women for decades, and single dose has been considered the first line of therapy. However, high rates of retest positive are found among TV infected persons after single dose MTZ treatment. This has not been explained by drug resistance since in vitro resistance is only 2–5 %. Treatment failure can range from 7–10 % and even higher among HIV+ women. Treatment efficacy may be influenced by vaginal ecology. The origins of repeat positives need further explanation and better treatment options are needed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                2062-8633
                June 2019
                : 9
                : 2
                : 42-45
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Roche Molecular Systems, Inc , Pleasanton, California, USA
                [2 ] Bioscientia , Ingelheim, Germany
                [3 ] Laborärzte Sindelfingen , Sindelfingen, Germany
                [4 ] Roche Molecular Diagnostics , Rotkreuz, Switzerland
                Author notes
                [*]

                Author for correspondence: Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., 4300 Hacienda Drive, Pleasanton, California 94588 USA; beth.marlowe@ 123456roche.com ; Tel: +1-925-251-6788; Fax: +1-925-730 8388.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2019.00004
                6563683
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes - if any - are indicated.

                Page count
                Pages: 4
                Categories
                Original Research Paper

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