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      Effect of Interleukin 1β on the HPA Axis in H 1-Receptor Knockout Mice

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          Abstract

          Objectives and Methods: Circulating cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are potent ACTH secretagogues, acting via stimulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressinergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Histamine (HA) has been shown to stimulate ACTH secretion in rats, an effect in part mediated by CRH and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We have previously shown that inhibition of neuronal HA synthesis or central blockade of H<sub>1</sub> receptors (H<sub>1</sub>R) decreased the ACTH response to LPS in male rats. To further elucidate the role of neuronal HA in cytokine-induced activation of the HPA axis, we compared the effect of H<sub>1</sub>R knockout on IL-1β-induced ACTH secretion in adult male mice. Results: In H<sub>1</sub>R knockout mice, ACTH secretion increased from basal levels of 261 to 492 pmol/l in response to IL-1β whereas the cytokine-induced ACTH secretion increased from 140 to 406 pmol/l in wild-type mice. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) rose from basal levels of 99 to 831 nmol/l in knockout mice upon IL-1β stimulation, whereas in wild-type mice CORT levels rose from 112 to 841 nmol/l. There was no significant difference in IL-1β-stimulated plasma ACTH or CORT levels between wild-type and knockout mice. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in basal or IL-1β-stimulated hypothalamic levels of histamine and tele-methyl-histamine between wild-type and knockout mice. HDC gene expression was significantly lower in knockout mice than in wild-type mice both under basal and IL-1β-stimulated conditions, while there were no significant differences in CRH gene expression in the PVN in knockout mice under basal and IL-1β-stimulated conditions. Increased basal expression of AVP in the PVN of knockout mice was observed in this study compared to wild-type mice. Conclusion: We conclude that the lack of the gene for histamine H<sub>1</sub>R does not seem to be crucial for the ACTH and CORT response to IL-1β, either due to possible functional compensation in the H<sub>1</sub>R knockout mouse or due to activation of pathways other than the neuronal histaminergic system.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Differential effects of central and peripheral injection of interleukin-1 beta on brain c-fos expression and neuroendocrine functions.

          Cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) alter the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in the rat. However, the brain sites at which IL-1 beta exerts these effects have not been well identified. The present study sought to identify some of these sites, using c-fos protein expression as an index of cellular activation. We also attempted to determine possible differences between the effects of peripheral and central injection of IL-1 beta on the activation of specific brain areas. Castrated male rats received intravenous (i.v.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of IL-1 beta through a jugular catheter or a permanent cannula implanted in the right lateral ventricle, respectively. Blood samples were taken before, as well as 30 and 120 min after i.v. or i.c.v. IL-1 beta infusion in order to measure plasma ACTH and LH levels. Immediately thereafter, the rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital, then perfused. Their brains were removed and postfixed for one hour. Thirty-microns frozen sections were cut and approximately every fourth tissue section was processed for c-fos expression by an avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Both i.v. (1 microgram) and i.c.v. (100 ng) injection of IL-1 beta significantly increased plasma ACTH levels, but only i.c.v. treatment measurably inhibited LH secretion. I.c.v. infusion of the cytokine markedly augmented c-fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. A large amount of CRF cells in the PVN contained labelled c-fos protein (as measured by a double labelling technique), which indicates that CRF perikarya in this hypothalamic region are activated by the central administration of IL-1 beta. In contrast, i.v. injection of IL-1 beta did not significantly alter c-fos expression in the PVN or the ARC of the hypothalamus. These results suggest that the increased HPA axis activity which follows the peripheral IL-1 beta administration, a phenomenon previously shown to depend on endogenous CRF, does not require immediate activation of hypothalamic CRF perikarya. Thus our results indicate that the stimulatory effect of blood-born cytokine may be exerted at the level of nerve terminals in the median eminence. In contrast, i.c.v.-injected IL-1 beta appears to activate the HPA axis through a stimulation of CRF neurons within the parvocellular part of PVN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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            Role of Several Mediators of Inflammation on the Mouse Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Response during Acute Endotoxemia

            Cytokines secreted by bacterial endotoxin-activated immune cells are substances known to stimulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. The present study was designed to better understand the effect of different mediators of inflammation, such as cytokines and histamine, on the acute HPA axis response induced by administration of a single dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in adult, male, BALB/c mice. Two different experimental designs were set up. In the first design, mice (n = 8–11 per group) were injected i.p. with LPS (90 µg/kg body weight) and killed by decapitation 2 or 6 h after treatment. Additional groups of mice were pretreated i.p. 12 h before LPS treatment with: (a) 3–4 mg IgG/kg body weight of either an anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-α, anti-interleukin (IL)-1β- or IL-6 serum; (b) IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) (120 µg/kg body weight) immediately before LPS and also 3 h later (when animals were killed 6 h after LPS injection), or (c) 182 µg/kg body weight of clemastine, an antagonist of H 1 histaminergic receptors, 2 h before LPS treatment; animals were killed in a similar fashion to that described for treatment with LPS alone. In the second experimental design, mice were pretreated (i.p., 10 mg/kg body weight, 30 min before administration of a similar dose of LPS) with different blockers of histaminergic pathway function such as: (a) mepyramine, another anti-H 1 , (b) cimetidine, an H 2 receptor blocker, and (c) Rα-methylhistamine dihydrochloride, an H 3 presynaptic receptor agonist which inhibits histamine synthesis and output. These animals were then killed by decapitation 40 min after endotoxin treatment. After decapitation, trunk blood was collected for further determination of plasma levels of both ACTH and corticosterone (B) by specific assays. The results indicate that plasma levels of both ACTH and B were several-fold increased over baseline, 2 and 6 h after LPS administration. Two hours, the effect of LPS on ACTH output was not modified by pretreatment with anti-IL-1β IgG, anti-IL-6 IgG, anti-TNF-α IgG nor with IL-1ra, although IL-1ra treatment was able to fully block the IL-1β (35 µg/kg body weight)-stimulated HPA axis function, 1 and 2 h after cytokine administration. Six hours after LPS administration, anti-IL-1β and anti-TNF-α IgGs were both able to significantly reduce HPA axis response to the endotoxins, whereas anti-IL6 IgG had no effect. Anti-IL-1β IgG reduced only B secretion, whereas anti-TNF-α IgG decreased both ACTH and B secretion. The blockade of histaminergic pathway functions did not impede the LPS-induced ACTH and B release regardless of the product employed. The present results indicate that TNF-α, and to a lesser extent IL-1β, are the most relevant cytokines involved in HPA axis response to endotoxin administration. Our data also suggest that, in mice, HPA axis activation after infection appeared to be independent of stimualtion of the histaminergic pathway.
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              Cytokine and adrenal axis responses to endotoxin 1Presented at the 27th Annual Society for Neuroscience Meeting: Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 23 Pt. 2 (1997) 1510. 1

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2002
                August 2003
                15 August 2003
                : 10
                : 6
                : 344-350
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medical Physiology, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, bDepartment of Surgery C, cDepartment of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, and dDepartment of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; eDepartment of Molecular Immunology, Kyusyu University, Fukuoka, Japan
                Article
                71475 Neuroimmunomodulation 2002–03;10:344–350
                10.1159/000071475
                12907841
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 32, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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