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      PDGFRβ regulates craniofacial development through homodimers and functional heterodimers with PDGFRα.

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          Abstract

          Craniofacial development is a complex morphogenetic process, disruptions in which result in highly prevalent human birth defects. While platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor α (PDGFRα) has well-documented functions in this process, the role of PDGFRβ in murine craniofacial development is not well established. We demonstrate that PDGFRα and PDGFRβ are coexpressed in the craniofacial mesenchyme of mid-gestation mouse embryos and that ablation of Pdgfrb in the neural crest lineage results in increased nasal septum width, delayed palatal shelf development, and subepidermal blebbing. Furthermore, we show that the two receptors genetically interact in this lineage, as double-homozygous mutant embryos exhibit an overt facial clefting phenotype more severe than that observed in either single-mutant embryo. We reveal a physical interaction between PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in the craniofacial mesenchyme and demonstrate that the receptors form functional heterodimers with distinct signaling properties. Our studies thus uncover a novel mode of signaling for the PDGF family during vertebrate development.

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          Most cited references 65

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          A global double-fluorescent Cre reporter mouse.

          The Cre/loxP system has been used extensively for conditional mutagenesis in mice. Reporters of Cre activity are important for defining the spatial and temporal extent of Cre-mediated recombination. Here we describe mT/mG, a double-fluorescent Cre reporter mouse that expresses membrane-targeted tandem dimer Tomato (mT) prior to Cre-mediated excision and membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein (mG) after excision. We show that reporter expression is nearly ubiquitous, allowing visualization of fluorescent markers in live and fixed samples of all tissues examined. We further demonstrate that mG labeling is Cre-dependent, complementary to mT at single cell resolution, and distinguishable by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Both membrane-targeted markers outline cell morphology, highlight membrane structures, and permit visualization of fine cellular processes. In addition to serving as a global Cre reporter, the mT/mG mouse may also be used as a tool for lineage tracing, transplantation studies, and analysis of cell morphology in vivo.
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            Direct observation of individual endogenous protein complexes in situ by proximity ligation.

            Cellular processes can only be understood as the dynamic interplay of molecules. There is a need for techniques to monitor interactions of endogenous proteins directly in individual cells and tissues to reveal the cellular and molecular architecture and its responses to perturbations. Here we report our adaptation of the recently developed proximity ligation method to examine the subcellular localization of protein-protein interactions at single-molecule resolution. Proximity probes-oligonucleotides attached to antibodies against the two target proteins-guided the formation of circular DNA strands when bound in close proximity. The DNA circles in turn served as templates for localized rolling-circle amplification (RCA), allowing individual interacting pairs of protein molecules to be visualized and counted in human cell lines and clinical specimens. We used this method to show specific regulation of protein-protein interactions between endogenous Myc and Max oncogenic transcription factors in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) signaling and low-molecular-weight inhibitors.
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              Role of platelet-derived growth factors in physiology and medicine.

              Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) have served as prototypes for growth factor and receptor tyrosine kinase function for more than 25 years. Studies of PDGFs and PDGFRs in animal development have revealed roles for PDGFR-alpha signaling in gastrulation and in the development of the cranial and cardiac neural crest, gonads, lung, intestine, skin, CNS, and skeleton. Similarly, roles for PDGFR-beta signaling have been established in blood vessel formation and early hematopoiesis. PDGF signaling is implicated in a range of diseases. Autocrine activation of PDGF signaling pathways is involved in certain gliomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Paracrine PDGF signaling is commonly observed in epithelial cancers, where it triggers stromal recruitment and may be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, thereby affecting tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. PDGFs drive pathological mesenchymal responses in vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, restenosis, pulmonary hypertension, and retinal diseases, as well as in fibrotic diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, scleroderma, glomerulosclerosis, and cardiac fibrosis. We review basic aspects of the PDGF ligands and receptors, their developmental and pathological functions, principles of their pharmacological inhibition, and results using PDGF pathway-inhibitory or stimulatory drugs in preclinical and clinical contexts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genes Dev.
                Genes & development
                Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
                1549-5477
                0890-9369
                Nov 01 2016
                : 30
                : 21
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Cell Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA.
                gad.288746.116
                10.1101/gad.288746.116
                5131783
                27856617

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