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      Ampullary cancer of intestinal origin and duodenal cancer - A logical clinical and therapeutic subgroup in periampullary cancer

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          Abstract

          Periampullary cancers include pancreatic, ampullary, biliary and duodenal cancers. At presentation, the majority of periampullary tumours have grown to involve the pancreas, bile duct, ampulla and duodenum. This can result in difficulty in defining the primary site of origin in all but the smallest tumors due to anatomical proximity and architectural distortion. This has led to variation in the reported proportions of resected periampullary cancers. Pancreatic cancer is the most common cancer resected with a pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by ampullary (16%-50%), bile duct (5%-39%), and duodenal cancer (3%-17%). Patients with resected duodenal and ampullary cancers have a better reported median survival (29-47 mo and 22-54 mo) compared to pancreatic cancer (13-19 mo). The poorer survival with pancreatic cancer relates to differences in tumour characteristics such as a higher incidence of nodal, neural and vascular invasion. While small ampullary cancers can present early with biliary obstruction, pancreatic cancers need to reach a certain size before biliary obstruction ensues. This larger size at presentation contributes to a higher incidence of resection margin involvement in pancreatic cancer. Ampullary cancers can be subdivided into intestinal or pancreatobiliary subtype cancers with histomolecular staining. This avoids relying on histomorphology alone, as even some poorly differentiated cancers preserve the histomolecular profile of their mucosa of origin. Histomolecular profiling is superior to anatomic location in prognosticating survival. Ampullary cancers of intestinal subtype and duodenal cancers are similar in their intestinal origin and form a logical clinical and therapeutic subgroup of periampullary cancers. They respond to 5-FU based chemotherapeutic regimens such as capecitabine-oxaliplatin. Unlike pancreatic cancers, KRAS mutation occurs in only approximately a third of ampullary and duodenal cancers. Future clinical trials should group ampullary cancers of intestinal origin and duodenal cancers together given their similarities and their response to fluoropyrimidine therapy in combination with oxaliplatin. The addition of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy in this group warrants study.

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          Most cited references 76

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          Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

          Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
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            KRAS mutation status is predictive of response to cetuximab therapy in colorectal cancer.

            The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) cetuximab has been proven to be efficient in metastatic colorectal cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical response to this drug remain unknown. Genetic alterations of the intracellular effectors involved in EGFR-related signaling pathways may have an effect on response to this targeted therapy. In this study, tumors from 30 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated by cetuximab were screened for KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation by direct sequencing and for EGFR copy number by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Eleven of the 30 patients (37%) responded to cetuximab. A KRAS mutation was found in 13 tumors (43%) and was significantly associated with the absence of response to cetuximab (KRAS mutation in 0% of the 11 responder patients versus 68.4% of the 19 nonresponder patients; P = 0.0003). The overall survival of patients without KRAS mutation in their tumor was significantly higher compared with those patients with a mutated tumor (P = 0.016; median, 16.3 versus 6.9 months). An increased EGFR copy number was found in 3 patients (10%) and was significantly associated with an objective tumor response to cetuximab (P = 0.04). In conclusion, in this study, KRAS mutations are a predictor of resistance to cetuximab therapy and are associated with a worse prognosis. The EGFR amplification, which is not as frequent as initially reported, is also associated with response to this treatment.
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              1423 pancreaticoduodenectomies for pancreatic cancer: A single-institution experience.

              Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with the possible addition of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy is the standard of care in the United States for adenocarcinoma originating in the pancreatic head, neck, and uncinate process. We reviewed 1423 patients who underwent a PD for a malignancy originating in the pancreas at our institution between 1970 and 2006. We examined 1175 PDs for ductal adenocarcinomas in greater detail. Eighteen different histological types of pancreatic cancer were identified; the most common diagnoses included ductal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and IPMN with invasive cancer. Patients with ductal adenocarcinoma were analyzed in detail. The median age was 66 years, with patients in the present decade significantly older (68 years), on average, than patients in the three prior decades (e.g., 60 years in 1970, P = 0.02). The median tumor diameter was 3 cm; 42% of the resections had positive margins and 78% had positive lymph nodes. The perioperative morbidity was 38%. The median postoperative stay declined over time, from 16 days in the 1980s to 8 days in the 2000s (P < 0.001). The perioperative mortality declined from 30% in the 1970s to 1% in the 2000s (P < 0.001). The median survival for all patients with ductal adenocarcinoma was 18 months (1-year survival = 65 %, 2-year survival = 37%, 5-year survival = 18%). In a Cox proportional hazards model, pathological factors having a significant impact on survival included tumor diameter, resection margin status, lymph node status, and histologic grade. This is the largest single-institution experience with PD for pancreatic cancer. Patients who have cancers with favorable pathological features have a statistically significant improved long-term survival.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                World J Gastrointest Oncol
                WJGO
                World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
                Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
                1948-5204
                15 October 2017
                15 October 2017
                : 9
                : 10
                : 407-415
                Affiliations
                the Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4032, Australia
                School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Queensland 4006, Australia. m.chandrasegaram@ 123456uq.edu.au
                Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
                Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology Group, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales 2065, Australia
                Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
                Department of Surgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2065, Australia
                Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia 5011, Australia
                University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
                Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, South Australia 5042, Australia
                Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
                School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Queensland 4006, Australia
                Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia
                Department of Upper GI Surgery, Bankstown Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2200, Australia
                Discipline of Surgery, Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales 2560, Australia
                Author notes

                Author contributions: All the authors made substantial contributions to (1) conception, design, analysis and interpretation of data; (2) making critical revisions related to important intellectual content of the manuscript; and (3) final approval of the version of the article to be published.

                Correspondence to: Dr. Manju D Chandrasegaram, the Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside, Brisbane, Queensland 4032, Australia. m.chandrasegaram@ 123456uq.edu.au

                Telephone: +61-7-31930800 Fax: +61-7-33196761

                Article
                jWJGO.v9.i10.pg407
                10.4251/wjgo.v9.i10.407
                5648984
                ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

                Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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