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      Overall survival in response to sorafenib versus radiotherapy in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with major portal vein tumor thrombosis: propensity score analysis

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          This study investigated the survival benefits of sorafenib vs. radiotherapy (RT) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in the main trunk or the first branch.


          Ninety-seven patients were retrospectively reviewed. Forty patients were enrolled by the Kanagawa Liver Study Group and received sorafenib, and 57 consecutive patients received RT in our hospital. Overall survival was compared between the two groups with PVTT by propensity score (PS) analysis. Factors associated with survival were evaluated by multivariate analysis.


          The median treatment period with sorafenib was 45 days, while the median total radiation dose was 50 Gy. The Child-Pugh class and the level of invasion into hepatic large vessels were significantly more advanced in the RT group than in the sorafenib group. Median survival did not differ significantly between the sorafenib group (4.3 months) and the RT group (5.9 months; P = 0.115). After PS matching (n = 28 per group), better survival was noted in the RT group than in the sorafenib group (median survival, 10.9 vs. 4.8 months; P = 0.025). A Cox model showed that des-γ-carboxy prothrombin <1000 mAU/mL at enrollment and RT were significant independent predictors of survival in the PS model ( P = 0.024, HR, 0.508; 95% CI, 0.282 to 0.915; and P = 0.007, HR, 0.434; 95% CI, 0.235 to 0.779; respectively).


          RT is a better first-line therapy than sorafenib in patients who have advanced unresectable HCC with PVTT.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Natural history of untreated nonsurgical hepatocellular carcinoma: rationale for the design and evaluation of therapeutic trials.

          This study analyzed the natural history and prognostic factors of patients with nonsurgical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty variables from 102 cirrhotic patients with HCC who were not treated within prospective randomized controlled trials (RCT) were investigated through uni- and multivariate analyses. None of them was suitable for radical therapies (surgical resection, liver transplantation, or ethanol injection) or presented end-stage disease as reflected by an Okuda stage 3 or a Performance Status >/=3. Sixty-five patients were Child-Pugh A, 34 were B, and 3 were C. Most of them exhibited a preserved Performance Status Test (PST) (0 = 56; 1 = 38; 2 = 8). Tumor was solitary in 26 (
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            Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis: analysis of 48 cases.

            The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is extremely poor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) for patients with advanced HCCs. Forty-eight HCC patients with PVTT were treated by HAIC via a subcutaneously implanted injection port. Of these, 14 had PVTT in the second portal branch and 34 patients had PVTT in the first portal branch or in the main portal trunk. One course of chemotherapy consisted of daily cisplatin (7 mg/m(2) for 1 hour on Days 1-5) followed by 5-fluorouracil (170 mg/m(2) for 5 hours on Days 1-5). Patients were scheduled to receive four serial courses of HAIC. Responders were defined as having either a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) and nonresponders were defined as exhibiting stable disease or progressive disease. The prognosis after HAIC and factors related to survival were analyzed. Following HAIC, 4 and 19 patients exhibited a CR and PR, respectively (response rate = 48%). The 1, 2, 3, and 5-year cumulative survival rates of 48 patients treated with HAIC were 45%, 31%, 25%, and 11%, respectively. Median survival periods for 23 responders and 25 nonresponders were 31.6 (range, 8.3-76.9) months and 5.4 (1.9-29.0) months, respectively. Therapeutic effect (P < 0.001) and hepatic reserve capacity (P = 0.021) were identified as significant prognostic factors by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis identified only therapeutic effect as being significantly related to survival. HAIC using low-dose cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil may be a useful therapeutic option for patients with advanced HCC with PVTT. HCC patients with PVTT who respond to HAIC could certainly have survival benefits. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
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              Intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma: long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors.

              This study aimed to evaluate the long-term results of treatment and prognostic factors in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of re-resection, transarterial oily chemoembolization (TOCE), or percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) in selected patients with intrahepatic recurrent HCC. The overall results of a treatment strategy combining these modalities have not been fully evaluated, and the prognostic factors determining survival in these patients remain to be clarified. Two hundred and forty-four patients who underwent curative resection for HCC were followed for intrahepatic recurrence, which was treated aggressively with a strategy including different modalities. Survival results after recurrence and from initial hepatectomy were analyzed, and prognostic factors were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using 27 clinicopathologic variables. One hundred and five patients (43%) with intrahepatic recurrence were treated with re-resection (11), TOCE (71), PEIT (6), systemic chemotherapy (8) or conservatively (9). The overall 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates from the time of recurrence were 65.5%, 34.9%, and 19.7%, respectively, and from the time of initial hepatectomy were 78.4%, 47.2%, and 30.9%, respectively. The re-resection group had the best survival, followed by the TOCE group. Multivariate analysis revealed Child's B or C grading, serum albumin < or = 40 g/l, multiple recurrent tumors, recurrence < or = 1 year after hepatectomy, and concurrent extrahepatic recurrence to be independent adverse prognostic factors. Aggressive treatment with a multimodality strategy could result in prolonged survival in patients with intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection for HCC. Prognosis was determined by the liver function status, interval to recurrence, number of recurrent tumors, any concurrent extrahepatic recurrence, and type of treatment.

                Author and article information

                BMC Gastroenterol
                BMC Gastroenterol
                BMC Gastroenterology
                BioMed Central
                3 May 2014
                : 14
                : 84
                [1 ]Department of Gastroenterology, Internal Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Asamizodai, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0380, Japan
                [2 ]Nakazawa Medical Clinic, Sagamihara, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
                Copyright © 2014 Nakazawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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