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      Enhancing analysis of neo-formed contaminants in two relevant food global commodities: Coffee and cocoa

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          Abstract

          Neo-formed contaminants (NFCs) are common in many foods, especially those subjected to high-temperature processing. Among these contaminants, products arising from the Maillard reaction, sugar reduction, thermal degradation of polyphenols and lipid oxidation, including acrylamide, furan, furfuryl alcohol, and hydroxymethylfurfural, are consistently linked to potential neoplastic effects. NFCs are found in globally traded commodities like coffee and cocoa, posing a significant risk due to their frequent consumption by consumers. A direct correlation exists between consumption frequency, exposure levels, and health risks. Hence, it's crucial to establish reliable methods to determine levels in both matrices, aiming to mitigate their formation and minimise risks to consumers. This review offers a comprehensive examination, discussion, and identification of emerging trends and opportunities to enhance existing methodologies for extracting and quantifying NFCs in coffee and cocoa. By presenting an in-depth analysis of performance parameters, we aim to guide the selection of optimal extraction techniques for quantifying individual NFCs. Based on the reviewed data, headspace extraction is recommended for furan, while solid and dispersive solid phase extractions are preferred for acrylamide when quantified using gas and liquid chromatography, respectively. However, it is worth noting that the reported linearity tests for certain methods did not confirm the absence of matrix effects unless developed through standard addition, leading to uncertainties in the reported values. There is a need for further research to verify method parameters, especially for determining NFCs like furfuryl alcohol. Additionally, optimising extraction and separation methods is essential to ensure complete compound depletion from samples. Ideally, developed methods should offer comprehensive NFC determination, reduce analysis time and solvent use, and adhere to validation parameters. This review discusses current methods for extracting and quantifying NFCs in coffee and cocoa, highlighting emerging trends and emphasising the need to improve existing techniques, especially for compounds like furfuryl alcohol.

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          Most cited references72

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          Some factors affecting the formation of furan in heated foods.

          Levels of furan in various foods were measured before and after heating under heating and laboratory conditions. The effect of contact with can coatings, sealing gaskets and the epoxidized oils used in gasket manufacture on furan formation was studied. The objective was to identify factors affecting furan formation. Furan present in heat-processed food samples persisted during cooking. Furan was shown to form in foods on heating, although it did not accumulate to a significant degree on heating in an open vessel. There were no interactions between foods and cans, can coatings or gaskets that had a significant influence on furan formation. Furan accumulated particularly in heat-processed canned and jarred foods because they are sealed containers that receive a considerable thermal load. Heating epoxidized oils used in sealing gaskets formed furan. At the levels used in gaskets, however, epoxidized oils should not affect the formation of furan in foods.
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            5-Hydroxymethylfurfural accumulation plays a critical role on acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting as confirmed by multiresponse kinetic modelling

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              Analysis of coffee for the presence of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS.

              A variety of popular instant, ground, and brewed coffees were analyzed using a modified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method specifically developed for the determination of acrylamide in foods. Coffee test portions were spiked with 13C3-labeled acrylamide as an internal standard prior to their extraction and cleanup. Ground coffees (1 g) and instant coffees (0.5 g) were extracted by shaking with 9 mL of water for 20 min. Brewed coffee test portions (9 mL) were taken through the cleanup procedure without further dilution with extraction solvent. Coffee test portions were cleaned up by passing 1.5 mL first through an Oasis HLB (hydrophilic/lipophilic copolymer sorbent) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and then a Bond Elut-Accucat (cation and anion exchange sorbent) SPE cartridge. The cleaned up extracts were analyzed by positive ion electrospray LC-MS/MS. The MS/MS data was used to detect, confirm, and quantitate acrylamide. The limit of quantitation of the method was 10 ng/g for ground and instant coffees and 1.0 ng/mL for brewed coffee. The levels of acrylamide ranged from 45 to 374 ng/g in unbrewed coffee grounds, from 172 to 539 ng/g in instant coffee crystals, and from 6 to 16 ng/mL in brewed coffee.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Elsevier
                2405-8440
                17 May 2024
                30 May 2024
                17 May 2024
                : 10
                : 10
                : e31506
                Affiliations
                [a ]Centro Surcolombiano de Investigación en Café (CESURCAFÉ), Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana Borrero Carera 1, 410001, Neiva, Colombia
                [b ]i-Food, Instituto Universitario de Ingeniería de Alimentos-FoodUPV, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46021, Valencia, Spain
                [c ]Escuela de ciencias agrícolas, pecuarias y del medio ambiente, Universidad Nacional Abierta a Distancia, Calle 14 Sur # 14 - 23, 111511, Bogotá, Colombia
                [d ]School of Engineering, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
                [e ]Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, NE1 8ST Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Centro Surcolombiano de Investigación en Café (CESURCAFÉ), Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana Borrero Carera 1, 410001, Neiva, Colombia. joel.l.g.hernandez@ 123456northumbria.ac.uk
                [** ]Corresponding author. i-Food, Instituto Universitario de Ingeniería de Alimentos-FoodUPV, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46021, Valencia, Spain yfbarrod@ 123456upv.es
                [1]

                These authors contributed this work equally.

                Article
                S2405-8440(24)07537-6 e31506
                10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e31506
                11137541
                38818199
                16445b33-04ab-4b08-aadc-2685835ce4c6
                © 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 12 September 2023
                : 15 May 2024
                : 16 May 2024
                Categories
                Review Article

                neo-formed contaminants,analytical determination,acrylamide,furan,furfuryl alcohol,hydroxymethylfurfural,performance parameters

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