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      Resveratrol Modulates Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-β) Signaling Pathway for Disease Therapy: A New Insight into Its Pharmacological Activities


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          Resveratrol (Res) is a well-known natural product that can exhibit important pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory. An evaluation of its therapeutic effects demonstrates that this naturally occurring bioactive compound can target different molecular pathways to exert its pharmacological actions. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is an important molecular pathway that is capable of regulating different cellular mechanisms such as proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. TGF-β has been reported to be involved in the development of disorders such as diabetes, cancer, inflammatory disorders, fibrosis, cardiovascular disorders, etc. In the present review, the relationship between Res and TGF-β has been investigated. It was noticed that Res can inhibit TGF-β to suppress the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. In addition, Res can improve fibrosis by reducing inflammation via promoting TGF-β down-regulation. Res has been reported to be also beneficial in the amelioration of diabetic complications via targeting the TGF-β signaling pathway. These topics are discussed in detail in this review to shed light on the protective effects of Res mediated via the modulation of TGF-β signaling.

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          High absorption but very low bioavailability of oral resveratrol in humans.

          The dietary polyphenol resveratrol has been shown to have chemopreventive activity against cardiovascular disease and a variety of cancers in model systems, but it is not clear whether the drug reaches the proposed sites of action in vivo after oral ingestion, especially in humans. In this study, we examined the absorption, bioavailability, and metabolism of 14C-resveratrol after oral and i.v. doses in six human volunteers. The absorption of a dietary relevant 25-mg oral dose was at least 70%, with peak plasma levels of resveratrol and metabolites of 491 +/- 90 ng/ml (about 2 microM) and a plasma half-life of 9.2 +/- 0.6 h. However, only trace amounts of unchanged resveratrol (<5 ng/ml) could be detected in plasma. Most of the oral dose was recovered in urine, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis identified three metabolic pathways, i.e., sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugation of the phenolic groups and, interestingly, hydrogenation of the aliphatic double bond, the latter likely produced by the intestinal microflora. Extremely rapid sulfate conjugation by the intestine/liver appears to be the rate-limiting step in resveratrol's bioavailability. Although the systemic bioavailability of resveratrol is very low, accumulation of resveratrol in epithelial cells along the aerodigestive tract and potentially active resveratrol metabolites may still produce cancer-preventive and other effects.
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            TGFbeta-SMAD signal transduction: molecular specificity and functional flexibility.

            Ligands of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily of growth factors initiate signal transduction through a bewildering complexity of ligand-receptor interactions. Signalling then converges to nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active SMAD complexes and gives rise to a plethora of specific functional responses in both embryos and adult organisms. Current research is focused on the mechanisms that regulate SMAD activity to evoke cell-type-specific and context-dependent transcriptional programmes. An equally important challenge is understanding the functional role of signal strength and duration. How are these quantitative aspects of the extracellular signal regulated? How are they then sensed and interpreted, and how do they affect responses?
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              Latent TGF-β structure and activation.

              Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-β1 requires the binding of α(v) integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-β binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-β1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between α(v)β(6) integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-β1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-β family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

                Author and article information

                31 July 2020
                August 2020
                : 8
                : 8
                [1 ]Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471, Iran; dvm.milad73@ 123456yahoo.com
                [2 ]Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6715847141, Iran; najafi_ma@ 123456yahoo.com
                [3 ]Department of Genetics, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 1916893813, Iran; Sima.orouei@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Young Researchers and Elite Club, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 1916893813, Iran; Fzr2000_0007@ 123456yahoo.com (A.Z.); hosseinsaleki2015@ 123456gmail.com (H.S.); negarazami77@ 123456gmail.com (N.A.); Negin.sharifi87@ 123456gmail.com (N.S.)
                [5 ]Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Division of Epidemiology & Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran 1417414418, Iran; houshmandi.kia7@ 123456ut.ac.ir
                [6 ]Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center (SUNUM), Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey
                [7 ]Center of Excellence for Functional Surfaces and Interfaces (EFSUN), Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey
                [8 ]Department of Science in Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 24 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
                Author notes
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                resveratrol,transforming growth factor-beta (tgf-β),chronic diseases,fibrosis,cancer,diabetes,therapy


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