Resveratrol (Res) is a well-known natural product that can exhibit important pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory. An evaluation of its therapeutic effects demonstrates that this naturally occurring bioactive compound can target different molecular pathways to exert its pharmacological actions. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is an important molecular pathway that is capable of regulating different cellular mechanisms such as proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. TGF-β has been reported to be involved in the development of disorders such as diabetes, cancer, inflammatory disorders, fibrosis, cardiovascular disorders, etc. In the present review, the relationship between Res and TGF-β has been investigated. It was noticed that Res can inhibit TGF-β to suppress the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. In addition, Res can improve fibrosis by reducing inflammation via promoting TGF-β down-regulation. Res has been reported to be also beneficial in the amelioration of diabetic complications via targeting the TGF-β signaling pathway. These topics are discussed in detail in this review to shed light on the protective effects of Res mediated via the modulation of TGF-β signaling.