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      Ecology and Life Cycle Patterns of Echinococcus Species.

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          Abstract

          The genus Echinococcus is composed of eight generally recognized species and one genotypic cluster (Echinococcus canadensis cluster) that may in future be resolved into one to three species. For each species, we review existing information on transmission routes and life cycles in different geographical contexts and - where available - include basic biological information of parasites and hosts (e.g., susceptibility of host species). While some Echinococcus spp. are transmitted in life cycles that involve predominantly domestic animals (e.g., dog - livestock cycles), others are wildlife parasites that do or do not interact with domestic transmission. In many cases, life cycle patterns of the same parasite species differ according to geography. Simple life cycles contrast with transmission patterns that are highly complex, involving multihost systems that may include both domestic and wild mammals. Wildlife transmission may be primary or secondary, i.e., resulting from spillovers from domestic animals. For most of the species and regions, existing information does not yet permit a conclusive description of transmission systems. Such data, however, would be highly relevant, e.g., for anticipation of geographical changes of the presence and frequency of these parasites in a warming world, or for initiating evidence-based control strategies.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Adv. Parasitol.
          Advances in parasitology
          Elsevier BV
          2163-6079
          0065-308X
          2017
          : 95
          Affiliations
          [1 ] University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
          [2 ] University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
          [3 ] Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.
          [4 ] University of Franche-Comté and Institut Universitaire de France, Besancon, France.
          [5 ] University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
          [6 ] University of Salford, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom.
          [7 ] Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Japan.
          [8 ] University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria RS, Brazil.
          Article
          S0065-308X(16)30105-1
          10.1016/bs.apar.2016.11.002
          28131364

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