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      Parasternal Intercostal Block Complementation Contributes to Postoperative Pain Relief in Modified Radical Mastectomy Employing Pectoral Nerve Block I and Serratus-Intercostal Block: A Randomized Trial

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Pectoral nerve block I (PECS I) and serratus-intercostal plane block (SIPB) can anesthetize the majority mammary region, while parasternal intercostal block (PSI) targets the internal area during breast resection surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether including PSI with PECS I and SIPB is more effective compared to PECS I and SIPB alone.

          Patients and Methods

          Sixty-two adult females undergoing unilateral modified radical mastectomy (MRM) were randomly assigned to receive either PECS I and SIPB (PS group, n=31) or a combination of PECS I, SIPB, and PSI (PSP group, n=31). The outcomes were measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS) score, and in terms of opioid consumption and anesthesia-related complications within 48 h after surgery.

          Results

          Although there were no differences in the NRS scores between the two groups during the inactive periods, the combination of three nerve blocks significantly reduced the NRS scores during movement. In addition, morphine equivalent consumption was lower in the PSP group compared to the PS group. Postoperative adverse events were similar in both groups in terms of regional anesthesia-related complications.

          Conclusion

          The combination of PECS I block, SIPB, and PSI block provides superior pain relief and postoperative recovery for patients undergoing MRM.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Ultrasound description of Pecs II (modified Pecs I): a novel approach to breast surgery.

          The Pecs block (pectoral nerves block) is an easy and reliable superficial block inspired by the infraclavicular block approach and the transversus abdominis plane blocks. Once the pectoralis muscles are located under the clavicle the space between the two muscles is dissected to reach the lateral pectoral and the medial pectoral nerves. The main indications are breast expanders and subpectoral prosthesis where the distension of these muscles is extremely painful. A second version of the Pecs block is described, called "modified Pecs block" or Pecs block type II. This novel approach aims to block at least the pectoral nerves, the intercostobrachial, intercostals III-IV-V-VI and the long thoracic nerve. These nerves need to be blocked to provide complete analgesia during breast surgery, and it is an alternative or a rescue block if paravertebral blocks and thoracic epidurals failed. This block has been used in our unit in the past year for the Pecs I indications described, and in addition for, tumorectomies, wide excisions, and axillary clearances. The ultrasound sequence to perform this block is shown, together with simple X-ray dye images and gadolinium MRI images to understand the spread and pathways that can explain the benefit of this novel approach. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
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            The 'pecs block': a novel technique for providing analgesia after breast surgery.

             Raul Blanco (2011)
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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Causes and consequences of inadequate management of acute pain.

              Intense acute pain afflicts millions of patients each year. Despite the recently increased focus on the importance of pain control, management of acute pain has remained suboptimal.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                30 April 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 865-871
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University , Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhong-Yuan Xia; Li-Ying Zhan Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University , No. 238 Jiefang Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province430060, People’s Republic of China Email xiazhongyuan2005@aliyun.com; 2582062108@qq.com
                Article
                237435
                10.2147/JPR.S237435
                7201222
                © 2020 Song et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 37, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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