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      SB-431542 Is a Potent and Specific Inhibitor of Transforming Growth Factor-β Superfamily Type I Activin Receptor-Like Kinase (ALK) Receptors ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7

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          Abstract

          Small molecule inhibitors have proven extremely useful for investigating signal transduction pathways and have the potential for development into therapeutics for inhibiting signal transduction pathways whose activities contribute to human diseases. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a member of a large family of pleiotropic cytokines that are involved in many biological processes, including growth control, differentiation, migration, cell survival, adhesion, and specification of developmental fate, in both normal and diseased states. TGF-beta superfamily members signal through a receptor complex comprising a type II and type I receptor, both serine/threonine kinases. Here, we characterize a small molecule inhibitor (SB-431542) that was identified as an inhibitor of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)5 (the TGF-beta type I receptor). We demonstrate that it inhibits ALK5 and also the activin type I receptor ALK4 and the nodal type I receptor ALK7, which are very highly related to ALK5 in their kinase domains. It has no effect on the other, more divergent ALK family members that recognize bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Consistent with this, we demonstrate that SB-431542 is a selective inhibitor of endogenous activin and TGF-beta signaling but has no effect on BMP signaling. To demonstrate the specificity of SB-431542, we tested its effect on several other signal transduction pathways whose activities depend on the concerted activation of multiple kinases. SB-431542 has no effect on components of the ERK, JNK, or p38 MAP kinase pathways or on components of the signaling pathways activated in response to serum.

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          Most cited references30

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          Identification of a novel inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.

          The compound U0126 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1, 4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene) was identified as an inhibitor of AP-1 transactivation in a cell-based reporter assay. U0126 was also shown to inhibit endogenous promoters containing AP-1 response elements but did not affect genes lacking an AP-1 response element in their promoters. These effects of U0126 result from direct inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family members, MEK-1 and MEK-2. Inhibition is selective for MEK-1 and -2, as U0126 shows little, if any, effect on the kinase activities of protein kinase C, Abl, Raf, MEKK, ERK, JNK, MKK-3, MKK-4/SEK, MKK-6, Cdk2, or Cdk4. Comparative kinetic analysis of U0126 and the MEK inhibitor PD098059 (Dudley, D. T., Pang, L., Decker, S. J., Bridges, A. J., and Saltiel, A. R. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U. S. A. 92, 7686-7689) demonstrates that U0126 and PD098059 are noncompetitive inhibitors with respect to both MEK substrates, ATP and ERK. We further demonstrate that the two compounds bind to deltaN3-S218E/S222D MEK in a mutually exclusive fashion, suggesting that they may share a common or overlapping binding site(s). Quantitative evaluation of the steady state kinetics of MEK inhibition by these compounds reveals that U0126 has approximately 100-fold higher affinity for deltaN3-S218E/S222D MEK than does PD098059. We further tested the effects of these compounds on the activity of wild type MEK isolated after activation from stimulated cells. Surprisingly, we observe a significant diminution in affinity of both compounds for wild type MEK as compared with the deltaN3-S218E/S222D mutant enzyme. These results suggest that the affinity of both compounds is mediated by subtle conformational differences between the two activated MEK forms. The MEK affinity of U0126, its selectivity for MEK over other kinases, and its cellular efficacy suggest that this compound will serve as a powerful tool for in vitro and cellular investigations of mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal transduction.
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            Direct binding of Smad3 and Smad4 to critical TGF beta-inducible elements in the promoter of human plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 gene.

            Smad proteins play a key role in the intracellular signalling of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), which elicits a large variety of cellular responses. Upon TGF beta receptor activation, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated and form heteromeric complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate to the nucleus where they control expression of target genes. However, the mechanism by which Smads mediate transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. Human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a gene that is potently induced by TGF beta. Here we report the identification of Smad3/Smad4 binding sequences, termed CAGA boxes, within the promoter of the human PAI-1 gene. The CAGA boxes confer TGF beta and activin, but not bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) stimulation to a heterologous promoter reporter construct. Importantly, mutation of the three CAGA boxes present in the PAI-1 promoter was found to abolish TGF beta responsiveness. Thus, CAGA elements are essential and sufficient for the induction by TGF beta. In addition, TGFbeta induces the binding of a Smad3/Smad4-containing nuclear complex to CAGA boxes. Furthermore, bacterially expressed Smad3 and Smad4 proteins, but not Smad1 nor Smad2 protein, bind directly to this sequence in vitro. The presence of this box in TGF beta-responsive regions of several other genes suggests that this may be a widely used motif in TGF beta-regulated transcription.
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              Transcriptional control by the TGF-beta/Smad signaling system.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Pharmacology
                Mol Pharmacol
                American Society for Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET)
                0026-895X
                1521-0111
                July 01 2002
                July 01 2002
                July 01 2002
                July 01 2002
                : 62
                : 1
                : 65-74
                Article
                10.1124/mol.62.1.65
                12065756
                166dae96-d4e7-4257-9c2d-7376f1d7ae72
                © 2002

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