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      Soil macrofauna in areas with different ages after Pinus patula clearcutting Translated title: Macrofauna do solo em áreas com diferentes Idades após o corte raso de Pinus patula Translated title: Macrofauna edáfica en áreas con diferentes edades después de la tala rasa de Pinus patula


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          Abstract In Andean high montane areas, the establishment of exotic tree forests changes the soil dynamics and its biodiversity. Soil macrofauna act as indicators of ecosystem successional processes, and may have an important role in ecological restoration processes after clearcutting exotic tree plantations. The aim of the present study was to understand how soil macrofaunal assemblies change in areas with different ages post clearcutting of Pinus patula, and to identify the soil physico-chemical variables that better explain these variations. The macrofauna in a high montane forest was evaluated along with that of three areas with different ages post clearcutting: 0, 2.5, and 5 years after clearcutting (Yac). The effect of soil physico-chemical variables on macrofauna abundance was also evaluated. Macrofauna composition changed after clearcutting. Macrofauna abundance, richness, and diversity were lower in the 0 Yac area than in the other areas. Moreover, the macrofuna similarity to the reference forest did not increase with the years after clearcutting. This is due to the changes in soil characteristics, triggered by clearcutting. Slope, temperature, bulk density, real density, loam, pH, P, Na and K were the soil variales with a positive effect on the macrofauna abundance. These physico-chemical variables should be considered when designing restoration plans for Andean forest ecosystems. Moreover, Diplopoda, Coleoptera and Chilopoda might be useful to monitor and evaluate restoration processes after Pinus spp. clearcutting, because of their high abundance, diversity and relationship with environmental conditions.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo As florestas de árvores exóticas alteram as dinâmicas e biodiversidade do solo nas áreas andinas de alta montanha. A macrofauna do solo atua como indicador do processo de sucessão dos ecossistemas e pode ter um papel importante nos processos de restauração ecológica após o corte raso de plantações de árvores exóticas. O objetivo deste estudo foi entender como mudam as associações entre a macrofauna do solo em áreas com diferentes idades após o corte raso do pinheiro, Pinus patula, e identificar variáveis físico-químicas do solo que explicassem essas diferenças. Para isso avaliamos a macrofauna de uma floresta de alta montanha assim como a de três áreas com diferentes idades após o corte raso: 0; 2.5 e 5 anos após o corte raso (Yac). Também avaliamos o efeito das variáveis físico-químicas do solo na abundância da macrofauna. A composição da macrofauna mudou após o cote raso. A abundância, riqueza e diversidade da macrofauna foram menores na área com 0 Yac do que em outras áreas. Adicionalmente, a similaridade da macrofauna com a floresta de referência não aumentou em função dos anos após o corte raso. Isto é devido a mudanças nas características do solo desencadeadas pelo corte raso. A inclinação, temperatura, densidade aparente, densidade real, limo, pH, P, Na e K foram as variáveis do solo que tiveram um efeito positivo na abundância da macrofauna. Estas variáveis físico-químicas deveriam ser consideradas no projeto de planos de restauração para ecossistemas de floresta andinos. Adicionalmente, as ordens Diplopoda, Coleoptera e Chilopoda podem ser úteis para monitorar e avaliar o processo de restauração após o corte raso de Pinus spp. devido a sua alta abundância, diversidade e relação com as condições ambientais.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen El establecimiento de plantaciones forestales de especies exóticas cambia el ambiente edáfico y la biodiversidad del suelo, y es una de las mayores amenazas para el bosque de alta montaña. La macrofauna edáfica es un indicador de los procesos sucesionales del ecosistema y, consecuentemente, puede tener un rol importante en la restauración ecológica tras el proceso de tala rasa de estas plantaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo fue entender cómo la macrofauna cambia en áreas con diferentes edades después de la tala rasa de Pinus patula, e identificar las variables fisicoquímicas que mejor explican estas variaciones. Se evaluó la macrofauna en un bosque de alta montaña junto con tres áreas con diferentes edades después de la tala: 0, 2.5 y 5 años. También se evaluó el efecto de las características fisicoquímicas del suelo en la abundancia de macrofauna. La composicion de la macrofauna cambió después de la tala rasa. La abundancia, riqueza y diversidad fueron menores a la edad 0 después de la tala rasa que a las otras edades. Ademas, la similitud con el bosque de referencia no aumentó con el tiempo después de la tala, por los cambios en las características del suelo que ocurren como consecuencia de la tala. La pendiente, la temperatura, la densidad aparente, la densidad real, la textura del suelo, pH, P, Na y K tuvieron un efecto positivo en la abundancia de macrofauna. Estas variables fisicoquímicas deberían considerarse en el diseño de los planes de restauración de los ecosistemas de bosque andino. Además, Diplopoda, Coleoptera y Chilopoda podrían ser útiles para monitorear y evaluar los procesos de restauración después de la tala de Pinus spp., dada su alta abundancia, diversidad y relación con condiciones ambientales.

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              Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe.

              Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. The possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e., anthropogenic pressures related to direct forest resource use), however, have never been assessed at a pan-European scale. We used meta-analysis to review 49 published papers containing 120 individual comparisons of species richness between unmanaged and managed forests throughout Europe. We explored the response of different taxonomic groups and the variability of their response with respect to time since abandonment and intensity of forest management. Species richness was slightly higher in unmanaged than in managed forests. Species dependent on forest cover continuity, deadwood, and large trees (bryophytes, lichens, fungi, saproxylic beetles) and carabids were negatively affected by forest management. In contrast, vascular plant species were favored. The response for birds was heterogeneous and probably depended more on factors such as landscape patterns. The global difference in species richness between unmanaged and managed forests increased with time since abandonment and indicated a gradual recovery of biodiversity. Clearcut forests in which the composition of tree species changed had the strongest effect on species richness, but the effects of different types of management on taxa could not be assessed in a robust way because of low numbers of replications in the management-intensity classes. Our results show that some taxa are more affected by forestry than others, but there is a need for research into poorly studied species groups in Europe and in particular locations. Our meta-analysis supports the need for a coordinated European research network to study and monitor the biodiversity of different taxa in managed and unmanaged forests.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ED
                Universitas Scientiarum
                Univ. Sci.
                Facultad de Ciencias de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana de Bogotá. (Bogotá, Distrito Capital, Colombia )
                December 2018
                : 23
                : 3
                : 383-417
                [1] Bogotá Bogotá orgnamePontificia Universidad Javeriana orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Colombia
                [2] Bogotá Bogotá orgnamePontificia Universidad Javeriana orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias orgdiv2Departamento de Biología Colombia
                [3] Bogotá orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias orgdiv2Departamento de Estadística Colombia

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                : 07 June 2017
                : 06 September 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 133, Pages: 35

                SciELO Colombia


                restoration ecology,Andes,floresta tropical de montanha,ecologia da restauração,macrofauna do solo,bosque tropical de montaña,ecología de la restauración,macrofauna edáfica,tropical montane forest,soil macrofauna


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