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      Explaining educational influences on attitudes toward homosexual relations

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      Social Science Research

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 64

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          Gender differences in sexuality: a meta-analysis.

          This meta-analysis surveyed 177 usable sources that reported data on gender differences on 21 different measures of sexual attitudes and behaviors. The largest gender difference was in incidence of masturbation: Men had the greater incidence (d = .96). There was also a large gender difference in attitudes toward casual sex: Males had considerably more permissive attitudes (d = .81). There were no gender differences in attitudes toward homosexuality or in sexual satisfaction. Most other gender differences were in the small-to-moderate range. Gender differences narrowed from the 1960s to the 1980s for many variables. Chodorow's neoanalytic theory, sociobiology, social learning theory, social role theory, and script theory are discussed in relation to these findings.
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            America's Liberalization in Attitudes toward Homosexuality, 1973 to 1998

             Jeni Loftus (2001)
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              Beyond "homophobia": a social psychological perspective on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

               Gregory Herek (1983)
              Homophobia, a term often used to describe hostile reactions to lesbians and gay men, implies a unidimensional construct of attitudes as expressions of irrational fears. This paper argues that a more complex view is needed of the psychology of positive and negative attitudes toward homosexual persons. Based upon a review of previous empirical research, a model is proposed that distinguishes three types of attitudes according to the social psychological function they serve: (1) experiential, categorizing social reality by one's past interactions with homosexual persons; (2) defensive, coping with one's inner conflicts or anxieties by projecting them onto homosexual persons; and (3) symbolic, expressing abstract ideological concepts that are closely linked to one's notion of self and to one's social network and reference groups. Strategies are proposed for changing attitudes serving each of the functions. The importance of distinguishing attitudes toward lesbians from those focused on gay men is also discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Social Science Research
                Social Science Research
                Elsevier BV
                0049089X
                December 2005
                December 2005
                : 34
                : 4
                : 781-799
                Article
                10.1016/j.ssresearch.2004.12.004
                © 2005

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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