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      Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women

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          Abstract

          Dietary carbohydrates may influence the development of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, for example, through effects on blood glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined the relations of baseline intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, dietary magnesium, and carbohydrate-rich foods and the glycemic index with incidence of diabetes. This was a prospective cohort study of 35988 older Iowa women initially free of diabetes. During 6 y of follow-up, 1141 incident cases of diabetes were reported. Total grain, whole-grain, total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium intakes showed strong inverse associations with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential nondietary confounding variables. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks of diabetes were 1.0, 0.99, 0.98, 0.92, and 0.79 (P for trend: 0.0089) across quintiles of whole-grain intake; 1.0, 1.09, 1.00, 0.94, and 0.78 (P for trend: 0.005) across quintiles of total dietary fiber intake; and 1.0, 0.81, 0.82, 0.81, and 0.67 (P for trend: 0.0003) across quintiles of dietary magnesium intake. Intakes of total carbohydrates, refined grains, fruit and vegetables, and soluble fiber and the glycemic index were unrelated to diabetes risk. These data support a protective role for grains (particularly whole grains), cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium in the development of diabetes in older women.

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          Most cited references35

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          Dietary Fiber, Glycemic Load, and Risk of NIDDM in Men

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            Dietary Fiber, Glycemic Load, and Risk of Non—insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Women

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              THE USE OF A SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRE TO ASSESS DIET FOUR YEARS IN THE PAST

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0002-9165
                1938-3207
                April 2000
                April 01 2000
                April 2000
                April 01 2000
                : 71
                : 4
                : 921-930
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; the Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston; and the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St Paul.
                Article
                10.1093/ajcn/71.4.921
                10731498
                168bd5e8-a1e0-468f-945b-8420fe438a58
                © 2000

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