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      The clinical use of regenerative therapy in COPD

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          Abstract

          Regenerative or stem cell therapy is an emerging field of treatment based on stimulation of endogenous resident stem cells or administration of exogenous stem cells to treat diseases or injury and to replace malfunctioning or damaged tissues. Current evidence suggests that in the lung, these cells may participate in tissue homeostasis and regeneration after injury. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that tissue-specific stem cells and bone marrow-derived cells contribute to lung tissue regeneration and protection, and thus administration of exogenous stem/progenitor cells or humoral factors responsible for the activation of endogenous stem/progenitor cells may be a potent next-generation therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The use of bone marrow-derived stem cells could allow repairing and regenerate the damaged tissue present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by means of their engraftment into the lung. Another approach could be the stimulation of resident stem cells by means of humoral factors or photobiostimulation.

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          Most cited references 69

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          Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

           Peter Barnes (2008)
          Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both obstructive airway diseases that involve chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract, but the type of inflammation is markedly different between these diseases, with different patterns of inflammatory cells and mediators being involved. As described in this Review, these inflammatory profiles are largely determined by the involvement of different immune cells, which orchestrate the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells that drive the distinct patterns of structural changes in these diseases. However, it is now becoming clear that the distinction between these diseases becomes blurred in patients with severe asthma, in asthmatic subjects who smoke and during acute exacerbations. This has important implications for the development of new therapies.
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            Tissue-engineered lungs for in vivo implantation.

            Because adult lung tissue has limited regeneration capacity, lung transplantation is the primary therapy for severely damaged lungs. To explore whether lung tissue can be regenerated in vitro, we treated lungs from adult rats using a procedure that removes cellular components but leaves behind a scaffold of extracellular matrix that retains the hierarchical branching structures of airways and vasculature. We then used a bioreactor to culture pulmonary epithelium and vascular endothelium on the acellular lung matrix. The seeded epithelium displayed remarkable hierarchical organization within the matrix, and the seeded endothelial cells efficiently repopulated the vascular compartment. In vitro, the mechanical characteristics of the engineered lungs were similar to those of native lung tissue, and when implanted into rats in vivo for short time intervals (45 to 120 minutes) the engineered lungs participated in gas exchange. Although representing only an initial step toward the ultimate goal of generating fully functional lungs in vitro, these results suggest that repopulation of lung matrix is a viable strategy for lung regeneration.
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              Mesenchymal stem cells: biology and potential clinical uses.

              There has been an increasing interest in recent years in the stromal cell system functioning in the support of hematopoiesis. The stromal cell system has been proposed to consist of marrow mesenchymal stem cells that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into various connective tissue lineages. Recent efforts demonstrated that the multiple mesenchymal lineages can be clonally derived from a single mesenchymal stem cell, supporting the proposed paradigm. Dexter demonstrated in 1982 that an adherent stromal-like culture was able to support maintenance of hematopoietic stem as well as early B lymphopoeisis. Recent data from in vitro models demonstrating the essential role of stromal support in hematopoiesis shaped the view that cell-cell interactions in the marrow microenvironment are critical for normal hematopoietic function and differentiation. Maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell population has been used to increase the efficiency of hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer. High-dose chemotherapy and frequently cause stromal damage with resulting hematopoietic defects. Data from preclinical transplantation studies suggested that stromal cell infusions not only prevent the occurrence of graft failure, but they have an immunomodulatory effect. Preclinical and early clinical safety studies are paving the way for further applications of mesenchymal stem cells in the field of transplantation with respect to hematopoietic support, immunoregulation, and graft facilitation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2014
                12 December 2014
                : 9
                : 1389-1396
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, San Raffaele Pisana Hospital, Istituti di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mario Cazzola, Unità di Farmacologia Clinica Respiratoria, Dipartimento di Medicina dei Sistemi, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, Rome 00133, Italy, Email mario.cazzola@ 123456uniroma2.it
                Article
                copd-9-1389
                10.2147/COPD.S49519
                4271722
                © 2014 Lipsi et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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