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      Neutrophil Activation and Mediators of Inflammation in Chronic Venous Insufficiency

      Journal of Vascular Research

      S. Karger AG

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          Abstract

          The effect of venous hypertension on the state of activation of leucocytes has been investigated in patients with venous disease and control subjects. Leucocytes become ‘trapped’ in the circulation of the leg during periods of venous hypertension produced by sitting or standing. This is greater in the limbs of patients with chronic venous disease than controls. Studies of the plasma levels of neutrophil granule enzymes show that these are increased during periods of venous hypertension, suggesting that this causes activation of the neutrophils. Investigation of the leucocyte surface ligand CD11b shows that the more activated neutrophils and monocytes are sequestered during venous hypertension. Measurement of plasma levels of the soluble parts of the vascular (VCAM), intercellular (ICAM) and endothelial leucocyte (ELAM) adhesion molecules show that these are all elevated in patients with chronic venous disease compared to controls. Following 30 min of venous hypertension produced by standing, these levels are further increased. These data suggest that venous hypertension causes neutrophil and monocyte activation, which in turn causes injury to the endothelium. I believe that this may be the mechanism that initiates the pathological processes which lead to venous ulceration. It has recently been shown that the venotonic drug Daflon 500 mg (450 mg diosmin, 50 mg hesperidin, Servier, France) influences these processes. Surface expression of CD62L is reduced in neutrophils and monocytes, and plasma levels of soluble endothelial adhesion molecules are reduced. These observations may explain the anti-inflammatory effects of Daflon 500 mg.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Leukocytes: their role in the etiopathogenesis of skin damage in venous disease.

          The role of leukocytes in tissue damage in the liposclerotic skin of venous disease has been investigated. Twenty-eight skin biopsy specimens were obtained from 23 patients with varicose veins of the lower limb, with a spectrum of skin injury ranging from normal to severe liposclerosis. In no patient was a venous ulcer present. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the cell types present and provide an indication of their activity. The predominant infiltrating cell types present were T lymphocytes and macrophages. B cells and neutrophils were rarely seen. As described previously, the capillaries were greatly increased in number in the papillary dermis and exhibited grossly increased expression of factor VIII-related antigen and major histocompatibility complex class II. Surprisingly, expression of adhesion molecules endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule were not elevated, but intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression did increase in more severely diseased skin. Perivascular fibrin was seen occasionally, but there was no evidence of microvascular occlusion. Staining for the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha was not increased in liposclerotic skin. Dermal staining for both interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and IL-1 beta was increased in severely liposclerotic skin, but this was not seen at an early stage. Epidermal staining for IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta was not increased. All changes were confined to the subpapillary region of the skin. These findings demonstrate that accumulation of macrophages and T cells is an event associated with the development of liposclerotic skin changes that may lead to ulceration in venous disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Fibrin- and fibrinogen-related antigens in patients with venous disease and venous ulceration.

            Abnormalities in systemic fibrinolysis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of venous ulceration. Patients with venous disease have a prolonged euglobulin lysis time and elevated plasma fibrinogen levels, yet little is known about the metabolism of fibrinogen and fibrin in such patients. In this study, we have used a technique that involves electrophoresis and densitometric analysis of captured fibrin-related antigens to measure the concentration and proportions of the individual fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products in patients with venous disease of the lower extremity. As a group, patients with venous disease had markedly elevated levels of total fibrin-related antigen and D-dimer, the terminal degradation product of cross-linked fibrin. Levels of D-monomer, the breakdown product of fibrinogen and non-cross-linked fibrin monomer, and a measure of fibrinogenolysis were normal in all patients. In patients with ulcers, the levels of D-dimer were disproportionately higher than expected from fibrin monomer levels. On an individual basis, significant elevations of D-dimer were present in six (55%) of the 11 patients with venous disease with ulcers and in three (43%) of the seven patients with venous disease without ulcers. We conclude that patients with venous disease have uniform evidence for enhanced fibrin formation, as evidenced by elevated levels of total fibrin-related antigen and D-dimer. This is regardless of whether the venous disease is accompanied by ulceration.
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              Expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin and their ligands VLA-4 and LFA-1 in chronic venous leg ulcers.

              Leukocyte binding to endothelial cells (ECs) is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcers caused by chronic venous insufficiency. In other systems, such binding is mediated by the interaction of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule- (VCAM-1) and E-selectin (on ECs), and leukocyte function-associated antigen-1(LFA-1) and very late activated antigen-4 (VLA-4) (on Leukocytes). Our purpose was to determine whether an increased expression of these adhesion molecules contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic venous insufficiency. Twenty-seven biopsy specimens of inflamed dermatoliposclerotic skin adjacent to venous leg ulcers were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, LFA-1, VLA-4, and E-selectin. Staining intensity was compared with that of normal skin. Specimens of leg ulcers caused by chronic venous insufficiency showed increased expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 but not of E-selectin on The expression of LFA-1 and VLA-4 on perivascular leukocytes was increased dramatically in comparison to healthy skin. Upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on ECs may contribute to the increased adherence and extravasation of LFA-1 and VLA-4-positive leukocytes in chronic venous insufficiency.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-6933-0
                978-3-318-00479-3
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                1999
                August 1999
                27 August 1999
                : 36
                : Suppl 1
                : 24-36
                Affiliations
                Department of Surgery, University College London Medical School, The Middlesex Hospital, London, UK
                Article
                54071 J Vasc Res 1999;36(suppl 1):24–36
                10.1159/000054071
                10474048
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, References: 48, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Paper

                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology

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