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      Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

      review-article

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      International Journal of Biomaterials

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature.

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          Most cited references 93

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          Influence of infection at the time of root filling on the outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis.

          This study investigated the role of infection on the prognosis of endodontic therapy by following-up teeth that had had their canals cleaned and obturated during a single appointment. The root canals of 55 single-rooted teeth with apical periodontitis were thoroughly instrumented and irrigated with sodium hypochlorite solution. Using advanced anaerobic bacteriological techniques, post-instrumentation samples were taken and the teeth were then root-filled during the same appointment. All teeth were initially infected; after instrumentation low numbers of bacteria were detected in 22 of 55 root canals. Periapical healing was followed-up for 5 years. Complete periapical healing occurred in 94% of cases that yielded a negative culture. Where the samples were positive prior to root filling, the success rate of treatment was just 68%--a statistically significant difference. Further investigation of three failures revealed the presence of Actinomyces species in each case; no other specific bacteria were implicated in failure cases. These findings emphasize the importance of completely eliminating bacteria from the root canal system before obturation. This objective cannot be reliably achieved in a one-visit treatment because it is not possible to eradicate all infection from the root canal without the support of an inter-appointment antimicrobial dressing.
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            Bioceramics: Past, present and for the future

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              Antibacterial activity of endodontic sealers by modified direct contact test against Enterococcus faecalis.

              The antibacterial effectiveness of 7 different endodontic sealers, AH Plus, Apexit Plus, iRoot SP, Tubli Seal, Sealapex, Epiphany SE, and EndoRez against Enterococcus faecalis was studied in vitro. A modified direct contact test was used. Bacteria in suspension were exposed to the materials for 2-60 minutes by using sealers that were freshly mixed or set for 1, 3, and 7 days. The pH values and contact angles of sterile water on sealers at different times after setting were also measured. Fresh iRoot SP killed all bacteria in 2 minutes, AH Plus in 5 minutes, EndoRez in 20 minutes, and Sealapex and Epiphany in 60 minutes. Freshly mixed Apexit Plus and Tubli Seal failed to kill all bacteria at 60 minutes. For 1-day and 3-day samples, iRoot SP and EndoRez had the strongest antibacterial activity, followed by Sealapex and Epiphany; Tubli Seal and AH Plus did n'ot show any significant antibacterial activity. Of all the samples, Apexit Plus had the lowest antimicrobial activity. The pH of the sealers could not alone explain their antibacterial effect. Fresh iRoot SP, AH Plus, and EndoRez killed E. faecalis effectively. IRoot SP and EndoRez continued to be effective for 3 and 7 days after mixing. Sealapex and EndoRez were the only ones with antimicrobial activity even at 7 days after mixing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Biomater
                Int J Biomater
                IJBM
                International Journal of Biomaterials
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-8787
                1687-8795
                2016
                3 May 2016
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Traian V. Chirila

                Article
                10.1155/2016/9753210
                4868912
                27242904
                Copyright © 2016 A. AL-Haddad and Z. A. Che Ab Aziz.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Biomaterials & Organic materials

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