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      Glycerol as Alternative Co-Solvent for Water Extraction of Polyphenols from Carménère Pomace: Hot Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Computational Chemistry Calculations

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          Abstract

          Glycerol is a co-solvent for water extraction that has been shown to be highly effective for obtaining polyphenol extracts under atmospheric conditions. However, its efficacy under subcritical conditions has not yet been studied. We assessed different water-glycerol mixtures (15%, 32.5%, and 50%) in a hot pressurized liquid extraction system (HPLE: 10 MPa) at 90 °C, 120 °C, and 150 °C to obtain extracts of low molecular weight polyphenols from Carménère grape pomace. Under the same extraction conditions, glycerol as a co-solvent achieved significantly higher yields in polyphenols than ethanol. Optimal extraction conditions were 150 °C, with 32.5% glycerol for flavonols and 50% for flavanols, stilbenes, and phenolic acids. Considering gallic acid as a model molecule, computational chemistry calculations were applied to explain some unusual extraction outcomes. Furthermore, glycerol, methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol were studied to establish an incipient structure–property relationship. The high extraction yields of gallic acid obtained with water and glycerol solvent mixtures can be explained not only by the additional hydrogen bonds between glycerol and gallic acid as compared with the other alcohols, but also because the third hydroxyl group allows the formation of a three-centered hydrogen bond, which intensifies the strongest glycerol and gallic acid hydrogen bond. The above occurs both in neutral and deprotonated gallic acid. Consequently, glycerol confers to the extraction solvent a higher solvation energy of polyphenols than ethanol.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Searching for green solvents

           Philip Jessop (2011)
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            Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality.

            Grape seeds are waste products of the winery and grape juice industry. These seeds contain lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and 5-8% polyphenols depending on the variety. Polyphenols in grape seeds are mainly flavonoids, including gallic acid, the monomeric flavan-3-ols catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin 3-O-gallate, and procyanidin dimers, trimers, and more highly polymerized procyanidins. Grape seed extract is known as a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging, disease, and decay. Grape seeds contains mainly phenols such as proanthocyanidins (oligomeric proanthocyanidins). Scientific studies have shown that the antioxidant power of proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. Extensive research suggests that grape seed extract is beneficial in many areas of health because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen, promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility. Other studies have shown that proanthocyanidins help to protect the body from sun damage, to improve vision, to improve flexibility in joints, arteries, and body tissues such as the heart, and to improve blood circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries, and veins. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seed are catechins, epicatechin, procyanidin, and some dimers and trimers.
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              Preclinical and clinical evidence for the role of resveratrol in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

              Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite advancements in diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease, the incidence of cardiovascular disease is still rising. Therefore, new lines of medications are needed to treat the growing population of patients with cardiovascular disease. Although the majority of the existing pharmacotherapies for cardiovascular disease are synthesized molecules, natural compounds, such as resveratrol, are also being tested. Resveratrol is a non-flavonoid polyphenolic compound, which has several biological effects. Preclinical studies have provided convincing evidence that resveratrol has beneficial effects in animal models of hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, ischemic heart disease, arrhythmia, chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Although not fully delineated, some of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of resveratrol are mediated through activation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes. In addition to these pathways, the anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, insulin-sensitizing, and lipid-lowering properties of resveratrol contribute to its beneficial cardiovascular effects. Despite the promise of resveratrol as a treatment for numerous cardiovascular diseases, the clinical studies for resveratrol are still limited. In addition, several conflicting results from trials have been reported, which demonstrates the challenges that face the translation of the exciting preclinical findings to humans. Herein, we will review much of the preclinical and clinical evidence for the role of resveratrol in the treatment of cardiovascular disease and provide information about the physiological and molecular signaling mechanisms involved. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Resveratrol: Challenges in translating pre-clinical findings to improved patient outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                MDPI
                2218-273X
                20 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 10
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, P.O. Box 306, Santiago 7820436, Chile; nlhuaman@ 123456uc.cl
                [2 ]Escuela de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Universidad Nacional de Moquegua, Prolongación calle Ancash s/n, Moquegua 18001, Peru
                [3 ]Programa Institucional de Fomento a la Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Ignacio Valdivieso 2409, P.O. Box 9845, Santiago 8940577, Chile
                [4 ]Centro Integrativo de Biología y Química Aplicada (CIBQA), Escuela de Tecnología Médica, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins, General Gana 1702, Santiago 8370993, Chile
                Author notes
                Article
                biomolecules-10-00474
                10.3390/biom10030474
                7175273
                32244874
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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