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      Role of prostaglandin E receptor subtypes EP2 and EP4 in autocrine and paracrine functions of vascular endothelial growth factor in the inner ear


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          The physiological effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are mediated by the prostaglandin E receptor subtypes EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, and the respective agonists have been purified. PGE1 and PGE2 can increase the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), particularly through EP2 and EP4. The biological effects of VEGF are mediated by the phosphotyrosine kinase receptors fms-related tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1) and fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1). Here we examined the effects of EP2 and EP4 agonists on the production of VEGF proteins and VEGF messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the inner ear, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. We also examined the localization of EP2, VEGF, Flt-1, and Flk-1 in the cochlea by immunohistochemistry.


          The expression of EP2 occurred in the cochlea, and the local application of an EP2 or EP4 agonist increased VEGF protein and VEGF mRNA levels in the inner ear. Furthermore, the intensity of the VEGF immunoreactivity in the spiral ganglion appeared to be increased by the local EP2 or EP4 agonist treatment. Immunoreactivity for Flt-1, and Flk-1 was found in the cochlear sensory epithelium, spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and stria vascularis.


          These findings demonstrate that EP2 and EP4 agonists stimulate VEGF production in the inner ear, particularly in the spiral ganglions. Moreover, the Flt-1 and Flk-1 expression observed in the present study suggests that VEGF has autocrine and paracrine actions in the cochlea. Thus, EP2 and EP4 might be involved in the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of PGE1 on acute sensorineural hearing loss via VEGF production.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions.

          Prostanoids are the cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid and include prostaglandin (PG) D(2), PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), PGI(2), and thromboxne A(2). They are synthesized and released upon cell stimulation and act on cells in the vicinity of their synthesis to exert their actions. Receptors mediating the actions of prostanoids were recently identified and cloned. They are G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. There are eight types and subtypes of prostanoid receptors that are encoded by different genes but as a whole constitute a subfamily in the superfamily of the rhodopsin-type receptors. Each of the receptors was expressed in cultured cells, and its ligand-binding properties and signal transduction pathways were characterized. Moreover, domains and amino acid residues conferring the specificities of ligand binding and signal transduction are being clarified. Information also is accumulating as to the distribution of these receptors in the body. It is also becoming clear for some types of receptors how expression of their genes is regulated. Furthermore, the gene for each of the eight types of prostanoid receptor has been disrupted, and mice deficient in each type of receptor are being examined to identify and assess the roles played by each receptor under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this article, we summarize these findings and attempt to give an overview of the current status of research on the prostanoid receptors.
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            VEGF-receptor signal transduction.

            The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of ligands and receptors has been the focus of attention in vascular biology for more than a decade. There is now a consensus that the VEGFs are crucial for vascular development and neovascularization in physiological and pathological processes in both embryo and adult. This has facilitated a rapid transition to their use in clinical applications, for example, administration of VEGF ligands to enhance vascularization of ischaemic tissues and, conversely, inhibitors of VEGF-receptor function in anti-angiogenic therapy. More recent data indicate essential roles for the VEGFs in haematopoietic cell function and in lymphangiogenesis.
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              • Abstract: not found
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              International Union of Pharmacology classification of prostanoid receptors: properties, distribution, and structure of the receptors and their subtypes.


                Author and article information

                BMC Neurosci
                BMC Neuroscience
                BioMed Central
                11 March 2010
                : 11
                : 35
                [1 ]Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kawaharacho 54, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, 606-8507 Kyoto, Japan
                Copyright ©2010 Hori et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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