A putatively monophyletic group of annual Silene species is revised taxonomically and described as the new section S. sect. Arenosae . The species of this section were previously treated as a part of a widely circumscribed and polyphyletic S. sect. Rigidulae . Silene sect. Arenosae as circumscribed here consists of nine species. Members of the section show a predominantly E Mediterranean to SW Asian distribution pattern from Turkey southward to Egypt and eastward to Iran and Pakistan, although most of the species have a limited distribution range. The species of S. sect. Arenosae are characterized by narrowly lanceolate calyx teeth, which are often highly polymorphic, and lanceolate to oblanceolate (non-spathulate) basal leaves. The provided taxonomic revision is based on morphological characters and supported by phylogenetic analyses of two nuclear loci (nrITS and an intron of the RPB2 gene) and one chloroplast locus (the intron of the rps16 gene). The species descriptions are formalized using a novel implementation of the Prometheus Description Model.