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      Cyclosporin A reduces airway mucus secretion and mucociliary clearance in rats Translated title: Ciclosporina A reduz a secreção de muco das vias aéreas e o transporte mucociliar de ratos


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          PURPOSE: To assay the effects of cyclosporin A on mucus secretion from goblet cells and on mucociliary transport in situ in rats. METHODS: Twenty-one male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups: control (n = 5), saline (n = 8), and cyclosporin A (n = 8). After 30 days of drug therapy, the rats were killed, and the lungs were removed from the thoracic cavity. Mucus samples were collected, and the transport rate was evaluated in vitro using a bullfrog palate model. Mucociliary transport was timed in situ by direct view of particles trapped on the mucus moving across the respiratory tract. Finally, the amount of stored mucins in the goblet cells of the respiratory epithelium was measured. RESULTS: Drug dosage measurements showed that cyclosporine blood concentration at the moment the rats were killed was 1246.57 ± 563.88 ng/mL. The in vitro transport rate was significantly lower (P < .001) in the cyclosporin A-treated group. Also, the in-situ mucociliary transport rate was decreased in all cyclosporin A-treated animals when compared to the saline group (P = .02). Mucus quantity measurements showed a significant decrease on both acid (P = .01) and neutral (P = .02) mucus production from goblet cells in the animals submitted to cyclosporin A therapy. The correlation between the percentage of total mucus and in vitro transport rate was positive and significant (r = 0.706, P < .001), as was the correlation between the percentage of total mucus and the in situ mucociliary transport rate (r = 0.688, P = .001). CONCLUSION: This study shows that cyclosporin A plays an important role in the impairment of the mucociliary clearance in rats by reducing both acid and neutral mucus production from goblet cells and causing a decrease in the mucociliary transport velocity.

          Translated abstract

          OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da ciclosporina A sobre a produção de muco das células caliciformes e sobre o transporte mucociliar in situ de ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e um ratos machos Wistar foram distribuídos em três grupos: Controle (n=5), Salina (n=8) e Ciclosporina A (n=8). Após 30 dias de terapia, os ratos foram mortos e os pulmões removidos da cavidade torácica. Amostras de muco foram coletadas e a medida da transportabilidade in vitro foi realizada através de um modelo de palato de rã. A velocidade do transporte mucociliar foi medida através da observação direta do deslocamento de partículas aderidas ao muco do epitélio ciliado brônquico. Por fim, efetuamos a quantificação das mucinas estocadas nas células caliciformes do epitélio respiratório. RESULTADOS: O valor médio da concentração sangüínea da ciclosporina no momento do sacrifício dos ratos foi de 1.246,57 ± 563,88 ng/ml. A transportabilidade do muco in vitro foi estatisticamente menor (p < 0.001) no grupo tratado com ciclosporina. Da mesma forma, houve um decréscimo na velocidade de transporte mucociliar nos animais imunossuprimidos em relação aos que receberam o placebo (p = 0.02). Houve diminuição significativa na quantidade de muco ácido (p = 0,01) e neutro (p = 0,02) produzidos pelas células caliciformes nos animais tratados com ciclosporina. A correlação entre a porcentagem de muco e a transportabilidade in vitro foi positiva e significante (r = 0.706, p < 0.001), assim como entre a porcentagem do muco e o transporte mucociliar in situ (r = 0.688, p = 0.001). CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostra que a ciclosporina A age no sistema mucociliar causando um sério prejuízo através da redução na produção de muco ácido e neutro pelas células caliciformes como também a diminuição da velocidade de transporte mucociliar in situ e a transportabilidade do muco in vitro.

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          Respiratory tract mucin genes and mucin glycoproteins in health and disease.

          This review focuses on the role and regulation of mucin glycoproteins (mucins) in airway health and disease. Mucins are highly glycosylated macromolecules (> or =50% carbohydrate, wt/wt). MUC protein backbones are characterized by numerous tandem repeats that contain proline and are high in serine and/or threonine residues, the sites of O-glycosylation. Secretory and membrane-tethered mucins contribute to mucociliary defense, an innate immune defense system that protects the airways against pathogens and environmental toxins. Inflammatory/immune response mediators and the overproduction of mucus characterize chronic airway diseases: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), or cystic fibrosis (CF). Specific inflammatory/immune response mediators can activate mucin gene regulation and airway remodeling, including goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH). These processes sustain airway mucin overproduction and contribute to airway obstruction by mucus and therefore to the high morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. Importantly, mucin overproduction and GCH, although linked, are not synonymous and may follow from different signaling and gene regulatory pathways. In section i, structure, expression, and localization of the 18 human MUC genes and MUC gene products having tandem repeat domains and the specificity and application of MUC-specific antibodies that identify mucin gene products in airway tissues, cells, and secretions are overviewed. Mucin overproduction in chronic airway diseases and secretory cell metaplasia in animal model systems are reviewed in section ii and addressed in disease-specific subsections on asthma, COPD, and CF. Information on regulation of mucin genes by inflammatory/immune response mediators is summarized in section iii. In section iv, deficiencies in understanding the functional roles of mucins at the molecular level are identified as areas for further investigations that will impact on airway health and disease. The underlying premise is that understanding the pathways and processes that lead to mucus overproduction in specific airway diseases will allow circumvention or amelioration of these processes.
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            Increased airway epithelial Na+ absorption produces cystic fibrosis-like lung disease in mice.

            Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene result in defective epithelial cAMP-dependent Cl(-) secretion and increased airway Na(+) absorption. The mechanistic links between these altered ion transport processes and the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease, however, are unclear. To test the hypothesis that accelerated Na(+) transport alone can produce cystic fibrosis-like lung disease, we generated mice with airway-specific overexpression of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC). Here we show that increased airway Na(+) absorption in vivo caused airway surface liquid (ASL) volume depletion, increased mucus concentration, delayed mucus transport and mucus adhesion to airway surfaces. Defective mucus transport caused a severe spontaneous lung disease sharing features with cystic fibrosis, including mucus obstruction, goblet cell metaplasia, neutrophilic inflammation and poor bacterial clearance. We conclude that increasing airway Na(+) absorption initiates cystic fibrosis-like lung disease and produces a model for the study of the pathogenesis and therapy of this disease.
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              New concepts of the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease


                Author and article information

                Faculdade de Medicina / USP (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                : 62
                : 3
                : 345-352
                [01] Sao Paulo SP orgnameUniversity of Sao Paulo orgdiv1Faculty of Medicine orgdiv2Hospital das Clinicas Brazil
                S1807-59322007000300021 S1807-5932(07)06200321

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Basic Research

                Mucociliary clearance,Cyclosporine,Mucinas,Célula caliciforme,Transporte mucociliar,Ciclosporina,Mucin,Goblet cell


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