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      Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence

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          Abstract

          We examine whether retaliatory violence exists between law enforcement and citizens while controlling for any social media contagion effect related to prior fatal encounters. Analyzed using a trivariate dynamic structural vector-autoregressive model, daily time-series data over a 21-month period captured the frequencies of police killed in the line of duty, police deadly use of force incidents, and social media coverage. The results support a significant retaliatory violence effect against minorities by police, yet there is no evidence of retaliatory violence against law enforcement officers by minorities. Also, social media coverage of the Black Lives Matter movement increases the risk of fatal victimization to both law enforcement officers and minorities. Possible explanations for these results are based in rational choice and terror management theories.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Macroeconomics and Reality

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            Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks.

            Emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. Emotional contagion is well established in laboratory experiments, with people transferring positive and negative emotions to others. Data from a large real-world social network, collected over a 20-y period suggests that longer-lasting moods (e.g., depression, happiness) can be transferred through networks [Fowler JH, Christakis NA (2008) BMJ 337:a2338], although the results are controversial. In an experiment with people who use Facebook, we test whether emotional contagion occurs outside of in-person interaction between individuals by reducing the amount of emotional content in the News Feed. When positive expressions were reduced, people produced fewer positive posts and more negative posts; when negative expressions were reduced, the opposite pattern occurred. These results indicate that emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence our own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks. This work also suggests that, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, in-person interaction and nonverbal cues are not strictly necessary for emotional contagion, and that the observation of others' positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people.
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              Computation and analysis of multiple structural change models

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                2018
                10 January 2018
                : 13
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122, United States of America
                [2 ] Department of Criminal Justice, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122, United States of America
                [3 ] Department of Applied Economics, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, United States of America
                University of Pennsylvania, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-04890
                10.1371/journal.pone.0190571
                5761867
                29320548
                © 2018 Bejan et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 5, Pages: 23
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Social Sciences
                Law and Legal Sciences
                Criminal Justice System
                Law Enforcement
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Communications
                Social Communication
                Social Media
                Twitter
                Computer and Information Sciences
                Network Analysis
                Social Networks
                Social Media
                Twitter
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Social Networks
                Social Media
                Twitter
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Criminology
                Police
                People and Places
                Population Groupings
                Professions
                Police
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Communications
                Social Communication
                Social Media
                Computer and Information Sciences
                Network Analysis
                Social Networks
                Social Media
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Social Networks
                Social Media
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Criminology
                Crime
                Homicide
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Fear
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Fear
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Social Research
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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