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      Poor prognostic factors of femoral shaft fractures in children treated by elastic intramedullary nailing


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          Introduction: Femoral shaft fractures in pediatric patients are treated by elastic intramedullary nailing using titanium or stainless-steel nails. The elastic stable intramedullary nailing behaves as an internal splint, promoting early mobilization. This type of treatment involves a minimally invasive approach, no damage to the growth plates, and no impairment of femoral head blood supply. Purpose: The aim of our study was to identify the negative predicting factors that might lead to an increased complication rate after elastic stable intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in children. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on 137 patients with femoral shaft fractures treated by elastic stable intramedullary nailing. Patients’ age ranged between 4 and 17 years. We used data from the medical records of the patients to evaluate postoperative complications. Plain radiographs were analyzed to determine the fracture type, fracture location, and postoperative complications such as delayed union, angular deformities, and limb length discrepancies. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify predictors for poor outcomes. Results: Complications occurred in 29 patients (21%) and consisted of delayed union, axial deformities, or lower limb length discrepancies. In the group of patients that suffered from complications, mechanism of injury, age, and weight were significant. They were older by an average of 5 years; half of them weighed more than 50 kg and over a half were involved in a road traffic accident. Conclusions: Elastic nailing is a successful tool to treat femoral shaft fractures. Three factors were demonstrated to influence the outcome. The mechanism of injury, age > 11 years, and weight > 50 kg are the most important and are predictors for development of complications such as delayed union or deformity.

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          Titanium elastic nails for pediatric femur fractures: a multicenter study of early results with analysis of complications.

          Titanium elastic nailing is used instead of traction and casting in many European centers, but limited availability has prevented widespread use in North America. Before a planned general release in America, titanium elastic nails (TENs) were trialed at several major pediatric trauma centers. This multicenter study is a critical analysis of early results and complications of the initial experience. Overall, TENs allowed rapid mobilization with few complications. The results were excellent or satisfactory in 57 of the 58 cases. No child lost rotational alignment in the postoperative period. Irritation of the soft tissue near the knee by the nail tip occurred in four patients, leading to a deeper infection in two cases. As indications, implantation technique, and aftercare are refined, TENs may prove to be the ideal implant to stabilize many pediatric femur fractures, avoiding the prolonged immobilization and complications of traction and spica casting.
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            Use and abuse of flexible intramedullary nailing in children and adolescents.

            Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) has became a well-accepted method of osteosynthesis of diaphyseal fractures in children and adolescents for many reasons including the following: no need for postoperative cast, primary bone union with avoidance of growth plate injury, and minimum invasive surgery. The principle is to introduce 2 elastic nails, titanium or stainless steel, into the medullary canal through a metaphyseal approach. The bended nails must have their maximum of curve at the level of the fracture, and their orientation, most often face to face, is in charge of the reduction and, so far, the stabilization, of the fracture. The usual size of the nails is equal to 0.4 times the diameter of the medullary canal. As far as possible, a bigger diameter is better than a thinner one. Most fractures of the femur are treated with a bipolar retrograde ESIN when some distal fractures need an antegrade subtrochanteric approach. Forearm fractures need a combined retrograde radial and antegrade ulnar through the posterolateral part of the olecranon. Humerus and tibial diaphyseal fractures may also be treated with ESIN. Complications are mainly caused by technical errors including too-thin nails, asymmetry of the frame, and malorientation of the implants. Nonunion was never observed in fractures of the femur and the forearm; osteomyelitis rate is 2%, and mean overgrowth of the femur is less than 10 mm before the age of 10 years. Indications of ESIN are fractures of the diaphysis: all the fractures of the femur between the age of 6 years and the end of growth except for the severe open grade III fractures, all the unstable fractures of the forearm, and some unstable fractures of the humerus and the tibia during adolescence or before the end of growth. In addition, ESIN is indicated in polytraumatism and multiple injuries. The good results of this reliable technique are obtained when surgeons have a good knowledge of it, especially in the understanding of the principle of the correction of the fracture and its stability.
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              Titanium elastic nailing of fractures of the femur in children. Predictors of complications and poor outcome.

              Between 1996 and 2003 six institutions in the United States and France contributed a consecutive series of 234 fractures of the femur in 229 children which were treated by titanium elastic nailing. Minor or major complications occurred in 80 fractures. Full information was available concerning 230 fractures, of which the outcome was excellent in 150 (65%), satisfactory in 57 (25%), and poor in 23 (10%). Poor outcomes were due to leg-length discrepancy in five fractures, unacceptable angulation in 17, and failure of fixation in one. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.003) between age and outcome, and the odds ratio for poor outcome was 3.86 for children aged 11 years and older compared with those below this age. The difference between the weight of children with a poor outcome and those with an excellent or satisfactory outcome was statistically significant (54 kg vs 39 kg; p = 0.003). A poor outcome was five times more likely in children who weighed more than 49 kg.

                Author and article information

                SICOT J
                SICOT J
                EDP Sciences
                31 August 2020
                : 6
                : ( publisher-idID: sicotj/2020/01 )
                : 34
                [1 ] Department of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Emergency Hospital for Children “Grigore Alexandrescu” 30-32 Iancu de Hunedoara Blvd. 011733 Bucharest Romania
                [2 ] “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bulevardul Eroii Sanitari 8 București 050474 Romania
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: madalina.carp@ 123456gmail.com
                Author information
                sicotj190045 10.1051/sicotj/2020031
                © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 April 2019
                : 11 August 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 5
                Original Article
                Lower Limb

                femoral shaft fracture,flexible intramedullary nail,pediatric trauma,pediatric orthopedics


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