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      Mitochondrial and Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Interconnection in Cardiac Arrhythmia

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          Ca 2+ plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial energy production, contraction, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial Ca 2+-targeted fluorescent probes have demonstrated that mitochondria Ca 2+ transients are synchronized with Ca 2+ fluxes occurring in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The presence of specialized proteins tethering SR to mitochondria ensures the local Ca 2+ flux between these organelles. Furthermore, communication between SR and mitochondria impacts their functionality in a bidirectional manner. Mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake through the mitochondrial Ca 2+ uniplex is essential for ATP production and controlled reactive oxygen species levels for proper cellular signaling. Conversely, mitochondrial ATP ensures the proper functioning of SR Ca 2+-handling proteins, which ensures that mitochondria receive an adequate supply of Ca 2+. Recent evidence suggests that altered SR Ca 2+ proteins, such as ryanodine receptors and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase pump, play an important role in maintaining proper cardiac membrane excitability, which may be initiated and potentiated when mitochondria are dysfunctional. This recognized mitochondrial role offers the opportunity to develop new therapeutic approaches aimed at preventing cardiac arrhythmias in cardiac disease.

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          Most cited references 252

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          Atrial fibrillation begets atrial fibrillation. A study in awake chronically instrumented goats.

          In this study we tested the hypothesis that atrial fibrillation (AF) causes electrophysiological changes of the atrial myocardium which might explain the progressive nature of the arrhythmia. Twelve goats were chronically instrumented with multiple electrodes sutured to the epicardium of both atria. Two to 3 Weeks after implantation, the animals were connected to a fibrillation pacemaker which artificially maintained AF. Whereas during control episodes of AF were short lasting (6 +/- 3 seconds), artificial maintenance of AF resulted in a progressive increase in the duration of AF to become sustained (> 24 hours) after 7.1 +/- 4.8 days (10 of 11 goats). During the first 24 hours of AF the median fibrillation interval shortened from 145 +/- 18 to 108 +/- 8 ms and the inducibility of AF by a single premature stimulus increased from 24% to 76%. The atrial effective refractory period (AERP) shortened from 146 +/- 19 to 95 +/- 20 ms (-35%) (S1S1, 400 ms). At high pacing rates the shortening was less (-12%), pointing to a reversion of the normal adaptation of the AERP to heart rate. In 5 goats, after 2 to 4 weeks of AF, sinus rhythm was restored and all electrophysiological changes were found to be reversible within 1 week. Artificial maintenance of AF leads to a marked shortening of AERP, a reversion of its physiological rate adaptation, and an increase in rate, inducibility and stability of AF. All these changes were completely reversible within 1 week of sinus rhythm.
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            Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry.

             D. Harman (1956)
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              Role of oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling.


                Author and article information

                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front. Cell Dev. Biol.
                Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                28 January 2021
                : 8
                1Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Cátedra de Cardiología y Medicina Cardiovascular , Monterrey, Mexico
                2Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School , Ann Arbor, MI, United States
                3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School , Ann Arbor, MI, United States
                4TecSalud, Centro de Investigación Biomédica, Hospital Zambrano-Hellion , San Pedro Garza García, Mexico
                5TecSalud, Centro de Medicina Funcional, Hospital Zambrano-Hellion , San Pedro Garza García, Mexico
                Author notes

                Edited by: Giampaolo Morciano, University of Ferrara, Italy

                Reviewed by: Dmitry Terentyev, Brown University, United States; Tommaso Angelone, University of Calabria, Italy

                *Correspondence: Gerardo García-Rivas, gdejesus@ 123456tec.mx ; gdejesus@ 123456itesm.mx

                This article was submitted to Cellular Biochemistry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

                Copyright © 2021 Salazar-Ramírez, Ramos-Mondragón and García-Rivas.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 252, Pages: 27, Words: 0
                Funded by: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología 10.13039/501100003141
                Award ID: 256577
                Award ID: 258197
                Award ID: Frontera de la Ciencias
                Award ID: Ciencia Básica (A1-S-43883).
                Award ID: Graduate Student (FSR)
                Cell and Developmental Biology


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