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TRPA1 is required for histamine-independent, Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor-mediated itch

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      SUMMARY

      Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. In many cases, pathological itch is insensitive to antihistamine treatment. Recent studies have identified members of the Mas-related GPCR (Mrgpr) family that are activated by mast cell mediators and promote histamine-independent itch. MrgprA3 and MrgprC11 act as receptors for the pruritogens chloroquine and BAM8–22, respectively. However, the signaling pathways and transduction channels activated downstream of these pruritogens are largely unknown. We found that TRPA1 is the downstream target of both MrgprA3 and MrgprC11, in cultured sensory neurons and heterologous cells. TRPA1 is required for Mrgpr-mediated signaling, as sensory neurons from TRPA1-deficient mice exhibited profoundly diminished responses to chloroquine and BAM8–22. Likewise, TRPA1-deficient mice displayed little to no scratching in response to these pruritogens. Our findings demonstrate that TRPA1 is an essential component of the signaling pathways that promote histamine-independent itch.

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      TRPA1 mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents.

      TRPA1 is an excitatory ion channel targeted by pungent irritants from mustard and garlic. TRPA1 has been proposed to function in diverse sensory processes, including thermal (cold) nociception, hearing, and inflammatory pain. Using TRPA1-deficient mice, we now show that this channel is the sole target through which mustard oil and garlic activate primary afferent nociceptors to produce inflammatory pain. TRPA1 is also targeted by environmental irritants, such as acrolein, that account for toxic and inflammatory actions of tear gas, vehicle exhaust, and metabolic byproducts of chemotherapeutic agents. TRPA1-deficient mice display normal cold sensitivity and unimpaired auditory function, suggesting that this channel is not required for the initial detection of noxious cold or sound. However, TRPA1-deficient mice exhibit pronounced deficits in bradykinin-evoked nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Thus, TRPA1 is an important component of the transduction machinery through which environmental irritants and endogenous proalgesic agents depolarize nociceptors to elicit inflammatory pain.
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        Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1.

        Wasabi, horseradish and mustard owe their pungency to isothiocyanate compounds. Topical application of mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) to the skin activates underlying sensory nerve endings, thereby producing pain, inflammation and robust hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Despite their widespread use in both the kitchen and the laboratory, the molecular mechanism through which isothiocyanates mediate their effects remains unknown. Here we show that mustard oil depolarizes a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are also activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in chilli peppers, and by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Both allyl isothiocyanate and THC mediate their excitatory effects by activating ANKTM1, a member of the TRP ion channel family recently implicated in the detection of noxious cold. These findings identify a cellular and molecular target for the pungent action of mustard oils and support an emerging role for TRP channels as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors.
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          Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin.

          Six members of the mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels respond to varied temperature thresholds. The natural compounds capsaicin and menthol activate noxious heat-sensitive TRPV1 and cold-sensitive TRPM8, respectively. The burning and cooling perception of capsaicin and menthol demonstrate that these ion channels mediate thermosensation. We show that, in addition to noxious cold, pungent natural compounds present in cinnamon oil, wintergreen oil, clove oil, mustard oil, and ginger all activate TRPA1 (ANKTM1). Bradykinin, an inflammatory peptide acting through its G protein-coupled receptor, also activates TRPA1. We further show that phospholipase C is an important signaling component for TRPA1 activation. Cinnamaldehyde, the most specific TRPA1 activator, excites a subset of sensory neurons highly enriched in cold-sensitive neurons and elicits nociceptive behavior in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 activation elicits a painful sensation and provide a potential molecular model for why noxious cold can paradoxically be perceived as burning pain.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1]Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
            [2]The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Center for Sensory Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
            Journal
            9809671
            21092
            Nat Neurosci
            Nature neuroscience
            1097-6256
            1546-1726
            19 September 2011
            3 April 2011
            May 2011
            1 November 2011
            : 14
            : 5
            : 595-602
            21460831
            3181150
            10.1038/nn.2789
            NIHMS277433

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            Funding
            Funded by: Office of the Director : NIH
            Award ID: DP2 OD007123-01 || OD
            Categories
            Article

            Neurosciences

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