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      Potential of Circulating Proangiogenic MicroRNAs for Predicting Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Events in Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Disease Patients Who Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

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          Abstract

          Objective: This study aimed to explore the association of 14 proangiogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) with major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) occurrence in unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD) patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: A total of 196 ULMCAD patients who underwent first ever CABG were recruited. The peripheral blood samples were collected prior to CABG, and then plasma samples were separated to detect expressions of 14 proangiogenic miRNAs by the reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Patients were regularly followed up to MACCE occurrence or 36 months after CABG. Results: MACCE occurrence at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years was 7.1, 11.2, and 14.3%, respectively, and accumulating MACCE occurrence time was 32.7 (95% confidence interval: 31.5–33.9) months. Both Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate Cox’s regression analyses displayed that miR-let-7f, miR-19a, miR-126, miR-130a, and miR-378 high expressions were associated with lower accumulating MACCE occurrence. Furthermore, forward stepwise multivariate Cox’s regression disclosed that miR-let-7f high expression and miR-378 high expression independently predicted decreased accumulating MACCE occurrence, whereas BMI (>25.0 kg/m<sup>2</sup>), diabetes, previous stroke, and higher disease extent were independent predictive factors for elevated accumulating MACCE occurrence. Conclusion: Measurement of circulating proangiogenic miRNAs especially miR-let-7f, miR-19a, miR-126, miR-130a, and miR-378 helps predict MACCE risk in ULMCAD patients who underwent CABG.

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          MicroRNAs

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            Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome.

            The aim of this review is to summarize the incidence, prevalence, trend in mortality, and general prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and a related condition, acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although CHD mortality has gradually declined over the last decades in western countries, this condition still causes about one-third of all deaths in people older than 35 years. This evidence, along with the fact that mortality from CHD is expected to continue increasing in developing countries, illustrates the need for implementing effective primary prevention approaches worldwide and identifying risk groups and areas for possible improvement.
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              Role of microRNAs in vascular diseases, inflammation, and angiogenesis.

              The integrity of the endothelial monolayer is fundamental for the homoeostasis of the vascular system. Functional endothelial cells are also required for the growth of new blood vessels during neovascularization. Although multiple growth factors have been shown to regulate angiogenesis and vascular development, little is known about the complex upstream regulation of gene expression and translation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of highly conserved, non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression on the post-transcriptional level by inhibiting the translation of protein from mRNA or by promoting the degradation of mRNA. More than 500 human miRNAs have been identified so far, and increasing evidence indicates that miRNAs have distinct expression profiles and play crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes such as cardiogenesis, haematopoietic lineage differentiation, and oncogenesis. Meanwhile, a few specific miRNAs that regulate endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis have been described. Let7-f, miR-27b, and mir-130a were identified as pro-angiogenic miRNAs. In contrast, miR-221 and miR-222 inhibit endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis in vitro by targeting the stem cell factor receptor c-kit and indirectly regulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Moreover, some miRNAs are involved in tumour angiogenesis such as the miR-17-92 cluster and miR-378. Early studies also indicate the contribution of specific miRNAs (e.g. miR-155, miR-21, and miR-126) to vascular inflammation and diseases. Thus, the identification of miRNAs and their respective targets may offer new therapeutic strategies to treat vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, to improve neovascularization after ischaemia, or to prevent tumour progression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2021
                May 2021
                17 March 2021
                : 146
                : 3
                : 400-408
                Affiliations
                [_a] aDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Affiliated Changzhi People’s Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Changzhi, China
                [_b] bDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, School of Medicine, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China
                [_c] cDepartment of Cardiology, HanDan Central Hospital, HanDan, China
                Author notes
                *Jie Ma, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University Affiliated to Shanxi Medical University, 382 Wuyi Road, Taiyuan 030001 (China), jike8104727@163.com
                Article
                509275 Cardiology 2021;146:400–408
                10.1159/000509275
                33730720
                16f4d84f-b09f-480c-b475-324c427a8680
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 17 March 2020
                : 06 June 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Cardiac Surgery: Research Article

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Proangiogenic,Unprotected left main coronary artery disease,Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events,Coronary artery bypass grafting,MicroRNAs

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