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      Calling songs of Neotropical katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Panama

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      Journal of Orthoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Understanding the ecology and evolution of animal communication systems requires detailed data on signal structure and variation across species. Here, we describe the male acoustic signals of 50 species of Neotropical katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Panama, with the goal of providing data and recordings for future research on katydid communication, evolution, ecology, and conservation. Male katydids were recorded individually using an ultrasound-sensitive microphone and high-sampling rate data acquisition board to capture both audible and ultrasonic components of calls. Calls varied enormously in duration, temporal patterning, peak frequency, and bandwidth both across and within subfamilies. We confirm previous studies showing that katydid species within the subfamily Pseudophyllinae produced short calls (<250 ms) at long intervals and we confirm that this is true for species in the subfamily Phaneropterinae as well. Species in the Conocephalinae, on the other hand, typically produced highly repetitive calls over longer periods of time. However, there were exceptions to this pattern, with a few species in the Conocephalinae producing very short calls at long intervals, and some species in the Phaneropterinae producing relatively long calls (1–6 s) or calling frequently. Our results also confirm previous studies showing a relationship between katydid size and the peak frequency of the call, with smaller katydids producing higher frequency calls, but the slope of this relationship differed with subfamily. We discuss the value of documenting the diversity in katydid calls for both basic studies on the ecology, evolution, and behavior of these species as well as the potential conservation benefits for bioacoustics monitoring programs.

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          Animal visual systems and the evolution of color patterns: sensory processing illuminates signal evolution.

          Animal color pattern phenotypes evolve rapidly. What influences their evolution? Because color patterns are used in communication, selection for signal efficacy, relative to the intended receiver's visual system, may explain and predict the direction of evolution. We investigated this in bowerbirds, whose color patterns consist of plumage, bower structure, and ornaments and whose visual displays are presented under predictable visual conditions. We used data on avian vision, environmental conditions, color pattern properties, and an estimate of the bowerbird phylogeny to test hypotheses about evolutionary effects of visual processing. Different components of the color pattern evolve differently. Plumage sexual dimorphism increased and then decreased, while overall (plumage plus bower) visual contrast increased. The use of bowers allows relative crypsis of the bird but increased efficacy of the signal as a whole. Ornaments do not elaborate existing plumage features but instead are innovations (new color schemes) that increase signal efficacy. Isolation between species could be facilitated by plumage but not ornaments, because we observed character displacement only in plumage. Bowerbird color pattern evolution is at least partially predictable from the function of the visual system and from knowledge of different functions of different components of the color patterns. This provides clues to how more constrained visual signaling systems may evolve.
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            Bats limit arthropods and herbivory in a tropical forest.

            Previous exclosure studies measuring the top-down control of arthropod abundance and herbivory combined the effects of birds and bats. We experimentally partitioned bird predation from bat predation in a lowland tropical forest in Panama and measured the direct effects (arthropod abundance) and indirect effects (herbivory). The exclusion of birds and bats each directly increased arthropod abundance on plants: Bird-exclosed plants contained 65% more, and bat-exclosed plants 153% more, arthropods than controls. Birds and bats also indirectly increased herbivory: Bird-exclosed plants suffered 67% more, and bat-exclosed plants 209% more, herbivory than controls. We conclude that bats have dramatic ecological effects that were previously overlooked.
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              Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

              Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON), a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net). Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
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                Journal
                Journal of Orthoptera Research
                JOR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1937-2426
                1082-6467
                December 04 2020
                December 04 2020
                : 29
                : 2
                : 137-201
                Article
                10.3897/jor.29.46371
                © 2020

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