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      Prospective, Multicenter Clinical Study of Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm

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          Hemifacial spasm: clinical findings and treatment.

          Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a peripherally induced movement disorder characterized by involuntary, unilateral, intermittent, irregular, tonic or clonic contractions of muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve. We reviewed the clinical features and response to different treatments in 158 patients (61% women) with HFS evaluated at our Movement Disorders Clinic. The mean age at onset was 48.5+/-14.1 years (range: 15-87) and the mean duration of symptoms was 11.4+/-8.5 (range: 0.5-53) years. The left side was affected in 56% instances; 5 patients had bilateral HFS. The lower lid was the most common site of the initial involvement followed by cheek and perioral region. Involuntary eye closure which interfered with vision and social embarrassment were the most common complaints. HFS was associated with trigeminal neuralgia in 5.1% of the cases and 5.7% had prior history of Bell's palsy. Although vascular abnormalities, facial nerve injury, and intracranial tumor were responsible for symptoms in some patients, most patients had no apparent etiology. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections, used in 110 patients, provided marked to moderate improvement in 95% of patients. Seven of the 25 (28%) patients who had microvascular decompression reported permanent complications and the HFS recurred in 5 (20%). Although occasionally troublesome, HFS is generally a benign disorder that can be treated effectively with either BTX-A or microvascular decompression.
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            Microvascular decompression surgery in the United States, 1996 to 2000: mortality rates, morbidity rates, and the effects of hospital and surgeon volumes.

            Microvascular decompression (MVD) is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates at specialized centers, but many MVD procedures are performed outside such centers. We studied short-term end points after MVD in a national hospital discharge database sample. A retrospective cohort study was performed by using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1996 to 2000. The sample included 1326 MVD procedures for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, 237 for treatment of hemifacial spasm, and 27 for treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia, performed at 305 hospitals by 277 identified surgeons. The mortality rate was 0.3%, and the rate of discharge other than to home was 3.8%. Neurological complications were coded in 1.7% of cases, hematomas in 0.5%, and facial palsies in 0.6%, with 0.4% of patients requiring ventriculostomies and 0.7% postoperative ventilation. Trigeminal nerve section was also coded for 3.4% of patients with trigeminal neuralgia, more commonly among older patients (P = 0.08), among female patients (P = 0.03), and at teaching hospitals (P = 0.02). The median annual caseloads were 5 cases per hospital (range, 1-195 cases) and 3 cases per surgeon (range, 1-107 cases). With adjustment for age, sex, race, primary insurance, diagnosis (trigeminal neuralgia versus hemifacial spasm versus glossopharyngeal neuralgia), geographic region, admission type and source, and medical comorbidities, outcomes at discharge were superior at higher-volume hospitals (P = 0.006) and with higher-volume surgeons (P = 0.02). Complications were less frequent after surgery performed at high-volume hospitals (P = 0.04) or by high-volume surgeons (P = 0.01). The rate of discharge other than to home was 5.1% for the lowest-volume-quartile hospitals, compared with 1.6% for the highest-volume-quartile hospitals. Volume and mortality rate were not significantly related, but three of the four deaths in the series followed procedures performed by surgeons who had performed only one MVD procedure that year. Length of stay (median, 3 d) and hospital volume were not significantly related. Hospital charges were slightly higher at higher-volume hospitals (P = 0.007). Although most MVD procedures in the United States are performed at low-volume centers, mortality rates remain low. Morbidity rates are significantly lower at high-volume hospitals and with high-volume surgeons.
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              Safety and effectiveness of microvascular decompression for treatment of hemifacial spasm: a systematic review.

              Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is caused by vascular compression of the VII cranial nerve at its root exit zone from the brainstem. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is the only treatment option that offers the prospect of a definitive cure for HFS. We conducted the first systematic review on the safety and effectiveness of MVD for the treatment of HFS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neurosurgery
                Neurosurg.
                NEUROS
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0148-396X
                1524-4040
                2021
                April 2021
                April 2021
                January 19 2021
                : 88
                : 4
                : 846-854
                Article
                10.1093/neuros/nyaa549
                16fc5d67-1821-4347-ae06-866c5113074b
                © 2021

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model


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