+1 Recommend
1 collections

      To submit your manuscript to JMIR, please click here

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Role of Social Media in Diabetes Management in the Middle East Region: Systematic Review

      , PhD 1 ,
      (Reviewer), (Reviewer)
      Journal of Medical Internet Research
      JMIR Publications
      social media, Saudi Arabia, eHealth, telemedicine, mobile phone, cell phone, outcome of care, Middle East

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Diabetes is a major health care burden in the Middle East region. Social networking tools can contribute to the management of diabetes with improved educational and care outcomes using these popular tools in the region.


          The objective of this review was to evaluate the impact of social networking interventions on the improvement of diabetes management and health outcomes in patients with diabetes in the Middle East.


          Peer-reviewed articles from PubMed (1990-2017) and Google Scholar (1990-2017) were identified using various combinations of predefined terms and search criteria. The main inclusion criterion consisted of the use of social networking apps on mobile phones as the primary intervention. Outcomes were grouped according to study design, type of diabetes, category of technological intervention, location, and sample size.


          This review included 5 articles evaluating the use of social media tools in the management of diabetes in the Middle East. In most studies, the acceptance rate for the use of social networking to optimize the management of diabetes was relatively high. Diabetes-specific management tools such as the Saudi Arabia Networking for Aiding Diabetes and Diabetes Intelligent Management System for Iraq systems helped collect patient information and lower hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c) levels, respectively.


          The reviewed studies demonstrated the potential of social networking tools being adopted in regions in the Middle East to improve the management of diabetes. Future studies consisting of larger sample sizes spanning multiple regions would provide further insight into the use of social media for improving patient outcomes.

          Related collections

          Most cited references17

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.

          The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. These findings indicate that the "diabetes epidemic" will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            First Nationwide Study of the Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and Optimal Cutoff Points of Waist Circumference in the Middle East

            OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to provide the first national estimate on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components and the first ethnic-specific cutoff point for waist circumference in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This national survey was conducted in 2007 on 3,024 Iranians aged 25–64 years living in urban and rural areas of all 30 provinces in Iran. The metabolic syndrome was defined by different criteria, namely the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, and the modified definition of the NCEP/ATP III (ATP III/American Heart Association [AHA]/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI]). RESULTS The age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was about 34.7% (95% CI 33.1–36.2) based on the ATP III criteria, 37.4% (35.9–39.0%) based on the IDF definition, and 41.6% (40.1–43.2%) based on the ATP III/AHA/NHLBI criteria. By all definitions, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was higher in women, in urban areas, and in the 55- to 64-year age-group compared with the prevalence in men, in rural areas, and in other age-groups, respectively. The metabolic syndrome was estimated to affect >11 million Iranians. The optimal cutoff point of waist circumference for predicting at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the IDF was 89 cm for men and 91 cm for women. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome with its considerable burden on the middle-aged population mandates the implementation of national policies for its prevention, notably by tackling obesity. The waist circumference cutoff points obtained can be used in the region.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Islet β cell mass in diabetes and how it relates to function, birth, and death

              In type 1 diabetes (T1D) β cell mass is markedly reduced by autoimmunity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from inadequate β cell mass and function that can no longer compensate for insulin resistance. The reduction of β cell mass in T2D may result from increased cell death and/or inadequate birth through replication and neogenesis. Reduction in mass allows glucose levels to rise, which places β cells in an unfamiliar hyperglycemic environment, leading to marked changes in their phenotype and a dramatic loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), which worsens as glucose levels climb. Toxic effects of glucose on β cells (glucotoxicity) appear to be the culprit. This dysfunctional insulin secretion can be reversed when glucose levels are lowered by treatment, a finding with therapeutic significance. Restoration of β cell mass in both types of diabetes could be accomplished by either β cell regeneration or transplantation. Learning more about the relationships between β cell mass, turnover, and function and finding ways to restore β cell mass are among the most urgent priorities for diabetes research.

                Author and article information

                J Med Internet Res
                J. Med. Internet Res
                Journal of Medical Internet Research
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                February 2018
                13 February 2018
                : 20
                : 2
                : e58
                [1] 1 Department of Health Information Management and Technology College of Public Health Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University Dammam Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Turki Alanzi talanzi@ 123456iau.edu.sa
                ©Turki Alanzi. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 13.02.2018.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://www.jmir.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                : 16 October 2017
                : 1 November 2017
                : 8 November 2017
                : 4 December 2017

                social media,saudi arabia,ehealth,telemedicine,mobile phone,cell phone,outcome of care,middle east
                social media, saudi arabia, ehealth, telemedicine, mobile phone, cell phone, outcome of care, middle east


                Comment on this article