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      Potential of a Cetuximab-based radioimmunotherapy combined with external irradiation manifests in a 3-D cell assay : Potential of EGFR-based RIT with X-ray

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          Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-overexpressing tumors with radiolabeled anti-EGFR antibodies is a promising strategy for combination with external radiotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the potential of external plus internal irradiation by [(90) Y]Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-C225 (Y-90-C225) in a 3-D environment using FaDu and SAS head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) spheroid models and clinically relevant endpoints such as spheroid control probability (SCP) and spheroid control dose 50% (SCD50 , external irradiation dose inducing 50% loss of spheroid regrowth). Spheroids were cultured using a standardized platform. Therapy response after treatment with C225, CHX-A"-DTPA-C225 (DTPA-C225), [(90) Y]Y-CHX-A"-DTPA (Y-90-DTPA) and Y-90-C225 alone or in combination with X-ray was evaluated by long-term monitoring (60 days) of spheroid integrity and volume growth. Penetration kinetics into spheroids and EGFR binding capacities on spheroid cells were identical for unconjugated C225 and Y-90-C225. Spheroid-associated radioactivity upon exposure to the antibody-free control conjugate Y-90-DTPA was negligible. Determination of the SCD50 demonstrated higher intrinsic radiosensitivity of FaDu as compared with SAS spheroids. Treatment with unconjugated C225 alone did not affect spheroid growth and cell viability. Also, C225 treatment after external irradiation showed no additive effect. However, the combination of external irradiation with Y-90-C225 (1 µg/ml, 24 hr) resulted in a considerable benefit as reflected by a pronounced reduction of the SCD50 from 16 Gy to 9 Gy for SAS spheroids and a complete loss of regrowth for FaDu spheroids due to the pronounced accumulation of internal dose caused by the continuous exposure to cell-bound radionuclide upon Y-90-C225-EGFR interaction.

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          Exploring the role of cancer stem cells in radioresistance.

          Radiobiological research over the past decades has provided evidence that cancer stem cell content and the intrinsic radiosensitivity of cancer stem cells varies between tumours, thereby affecting their radiocurability. Translation of this knowledge into predictive tests for the clinic has so far been hampered by the lack of methods to discriminate between stem cells and non-stem cells. New technologies allow isolation of cells expressing specific surface markers that are differentially expressed in tumour cell subpopulations that are enriched for cancer stem cells. Combining these techniques with functional radiobiological assays holds the potential to elucidate the role of cancer stem cells in radioresistance in individual tumours, and to use this knowledge for the development of predictive markers for optimization of radiotherapy.
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            Skin tissue engineering--in vivo and in vitro applications.

            Significant progress has been made over the years in the development of in vitro-engineered substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used as grafts for the replacement of lost skin or for the establishment of human-based in vitro skin models. This review summarizes these advances in in vivo and in vitro applications of tissue-engineered skin. We further highlight novel efforts in the design of complex disease-in-a-dish models for studies ranging from disease etiology to drug development and screening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              21 years of biologically effective dose.

              In 1989 the British Journal of Radiology published a review proposing the term biologically effective dose (BED), based on linear quadratic cell survival in radiobiology. It aimed to indicate quantitatively the biological effect of any radiotherapy treatment, taking account of changes in dose-per-fraction or dose rate, total dose and (the new factor) overall time. How has it done so far? Acceptable clinical results have been generally reported using BED, and it is in increasing use, although sometimes mistaken for "biologically equivalent dose", from which it differs by large factors, as explained here. The continuously bending nature of the linear quadratic curve has been questioned but BED has worked well for comparing treatments in many modalities, including some with large fractions. Two important improvements occurred in the BED formula. First, in 1999, high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation was included; second, in 2003, when time parameters for acute mucosal tolerance were proposed, optimum overall times could then be "triangulated" to optimise tumour BED and cell kill. This occurs only when both early and late BEDs meet their full constraints simultaneously. New methods of dose delivery (intensity modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, protons, tomotherapy, rapid arc and cyberknife) use a few large fractions and obviously oppose well-known fractionation schedules. Careful biological modelling is required to balance the differing trends of fraction size and local dose gradient, as explained in the discussion "How Fractionation Really Works". BED is now used for dose escalation studies, radiochemotherapy, brachytherapy, high-LET particle beams, radionuclide-targeted therapy, and for quantifying any treatments using ionising radiation.

                Author and article information

                International Journal of Cancer
                Int. J. Cancer
                August 15 2014
                August 15 2014
                February 11 2014
                : 135
                : 4
                : 968-980
                [1 ]OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus; TU Dresden; Dresden Germany
                [2 ]Institute of Radiooncology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR); Dresden Germany
                [3 ]Department of Nuclear Medicine; Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden; Dresden Germany
                [4 ]Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR); Dresden Germany
                [5 ]Department of Radiation Oncology; Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden; Dresden Germany
                [6 ]Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics; University of Regensburg; Regensburg Germany
                © 2014


                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ijc.28735


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