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      Neuroinflammation and Brain Development: Possible Risk Factors in COVID-19-Infected Children

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          Abstract

          COVID-19, a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) betacoronavirus, affects children in a different way than it does in adults, with milder symptoms. However, several cases of neurological symptoms with neuroinflammatory syndromes, such as the multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), following mild cases, have been reported. As with other viral infections, such as rubella, influenza, and cytomegalovirus, SARS-CoV-2 induces a surge of proinflammatory cytokines that affect microglial function, which can be harmful to brain development. Along with the viral induction of neuroinflammation, other noninfectious conditions may interact to produce additional inflammation, such as the nutritional imbalance of fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Additionally, transient thyrotoxicosis induced by SARS-CoV-2 with secondary autoimmune hypothyroidism has been reported, which could go undetected during pregnancy. Together, those factors may pose additional risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection impacting mechanisms of neural development such as synaptic pruning and neural circuitry formation. The present review discusses those conditions in the perspective of the understanding of risk factors that should be considered and the possible emergence of neurodevelopmental disorders in COVID-19-infected children.

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          Most cited references 72

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          A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

          Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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            Is Open Access

            A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

            Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats 1–4 . Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans 5–7 . Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV.
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              Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection Causes Neuronal Death in the Absence of Encephalitis in Mice Transgenic for Human ACE2

              Journal of Virology, 82(15), 7264-7275
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2 February 2021
                : 1-7
                Affiliations
                aLaboratory of Neural Plasticity, Neurobiology Department, Biology Institute, Federal Fluminense University, Niteroi, Brazil
                bLaboratory on Thymus Research, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                cDepartment of Applied Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                dNational Institute of Science and Technology on Neuroimmunomodulation, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Claudio A. Serfaty, Department of Neurobiology, Federal Fluminense University, Neuroscience Program, Federal Fluminense University, Outeiro de São João Batista, s/n, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro 24020-141 (Brazil), cserfaty@ 123456id.uff.br
                Article
                nim-0001
                10.1159/000512815
                7900470
                33530091
                Copyright © 2021 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 68, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Review Article

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