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      Is there a relationship between fracture healing and mean platelet volume?

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          Platelet volume has been defined to be a marker that shows thrombocyte activation and function and it is measured as mean platelet volume (MPV). MPV shows the mean volume of circulating thrombocytes and it is one of the routine parameters in complete blood count. Increased thrombocyte volume is associated with thrombocyte activation.

          Patients and methods

          This study included 76 patients who were operated on due to fractures of long tubular bones. Patients who had union without any additional interventions were defined as group I, and patients who needed additional interventions due to nonunion or inadequate union were defined as group II. The control group included healthy volunteers who did not have a fracture. Hematologic test values of the patients that were obtained at admission to emergency ward were recorded.

          Results

          The groups were not statistically different in terms of age, sex, and the affected extremity. There were significant differences between group I and group II in terms of mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and MPV values ( P<0.001), but there were no significant differences between group I and the control group. There was also no statistically significant difference among groups in terms of hematologic and biochemical variables.

          Conclusion

          In our study, fractures in patients who had lower MPV values than controls during the inflammation process healed without any problem, but fractures in patients with high MPV values more frequently needed additional surgical interventions.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 41

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          The biology of fracture healing.

          The biology of fracture healing is a complex biological process that follows specific regenerative patterns and involves changes in the expression of several thousand genes. Although there is still much to be learned to fully comprehend the pathways of bone regeneration, the over-all pathways of both the anatomical and biochemical events have been thoroughly investigated. These efforts have provided a general understanding of how fracture healing occurs. Following the initial trauma, bone heals by either direct intramembranous or indirect fracture healing, which consists of both intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. The most common pathway is indirect healing, since direct bone healing requires an anatomical reduction and rigidly stable conditions, commonly only obtained by open reduction and internal fixation. However, when such conditions are achieved, the direct healing cascade allows the bone structure to immediately regenerate anatomical lamellar bone and the Haversian systems without any remodelling steps necessary. In all other non-stable conditions, bone healing follows a specific biological pathway. It involves an acute inflammatory response including the production and release of several important molecules, and the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells in order to generate a primary cartilaginous callus. This primary callus later undergoes revascularisation and calcification, and is finally remodelled to fully restore a normal bone structure. In this article we summarise the basic biology of fracture healing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Platelet-rich plasma: Growth factor enhancement for bone grafts.

            Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous source of platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta that is obtained by sequestering and concentrating platelets by gradient density centrifugation. This technique produced a concentration of human platelets of 338% and identified platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta within them. Monoclonal antibody assessment of cancellous cellular marrow grafts demonstrated cells that were capable of responding to the growth factors by bearing cell membrane receptors. The additional amounts of these growth factors obtained by adding platelet-rich plasma to grafts evidenced a radiographic maturation rate 1.62 to 2.16 times that of grafts without platelet-rich plasma. As assessed by histomorphometry, there was also a greater bone density in grafts in which platelet-rich plasma was added (74.0% +/- 11%) than in grafts in which platelet-rich plasma was not added (55.1% +/- 8%; p = 0.005).
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              Mean platelet volume as a predictor of cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              To determine whether an association exists between mean platelet volume (MPV) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other cardiovascular events. Platelet activity is a major culprit in atherothrombotic events. MPV, which is widely available in clinical practice, is a potentially useful biomarker of platelet activity in the setting of cardiovascular disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the association between MPV and AMI, all-cause mortality following myocardial infarction, and restenosis following coronary angioplasty. Results were pooled using random-effects modeling. Pooled results from 16 cross-sectional studies involving 2809 patients investigating the association of MPV and AMI indicated that MPV was significantly higher in those with AMI than those without AMI [mean difference 0.92 fL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.16, P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, significant differences in MPV existed between subjects with AMI, subjects with stable coronary disease (P < 0.001), and stable controls (P < 0.001), but not vs. those with unstable angina (P = 0.24). Pooled results from three cohort studies involving 3184 patients evaluating the risk of death following AMI demonstrated that an elevated MPV increased the odds of death as compared with a normal MPV (11.5% vs. 7.1%, odds ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.12-2.52, P = 0.012). Pooled results from five cohort studies involving 430 patients who underwent coronary angioplasty revealed that MPV was significantly higher in patients who developed restenosis than in those who did not develop restenosis (mean difference 0.98 fL, 95% CI 0.74-1.21, P < 0.001). Elevated MPV is associated with AMI, mortality following myocardial infarction, and restenosis following coronary angioplasty. These data suggest that MPV is a potentially useful prognostic biomarker in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether the relationship is causal, and whether MPV should influence practice or guide therapy, remains unknown.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                13 July 2016
                : 12
                : 1095-1099
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale
                [2 ]Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sancar Serbest, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kırıkkale University, 71100 Kırıkkale, Turkey, Tel +90 533 554 5080, Fax +90 318 225 2819, Email dr.sancarserbest@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-12-1095
                10.2147/TCRM.S108790
                4948758
                27471388
                © 2016 Serbest et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                inflammation, fracture healing, bone tissue, mean platelet volume, platelet activation

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