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      Compliance, adherence, concordance, empowerment, and self-management: five words to manifest a relational maladjustment in diabetes

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          Abstract

          Background: The pathological reality of diabetes and the incidents in following the prescribed therapies have been considered and are still a serious and relevant problem in the health sector.

          Objective: This review aims at highlighting the importance of clinical psychological phenomena that underlie the notion of therapies.

          Methods: The review was conducted through search engines such as PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The articles related to compliance, adherence, concordance, empowerment and the self-management of diabetes were included, in order to highlight the possible similarities and differences that these terms bring with them in them management of diabetes.

          Results: Starting from 252 initial publications, 101 articles were selected that highlighted the practical implications that each term has compared to the others.

          Conclusion: The review can represent a bridge between the medical approach and clinical psychology, in which integration can suggest paths aiming at improving patients’ existential conditions and adaptation.

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          Most cited references 76

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          Effectiveness of self-management training in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

          To systematically review the effectiveness of self-management training in type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), and Nursing and Allied Health databases were searched for English-language articles published between 1980 and 1999. Studies were original articles reporting the results of randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of self-management training in people with type 2 diabetes. Relevant data on study design, population demographics, interventions, outcomes, methodological quality, and external validity were tabulated. Interventions were categorized based on educational focus (information, lifestyle behaviors, mechanical skills, and coping skills), and outcomes were classified as knowledge, attitudes, and self-care skills; lifestyle behaviors, psychological outcomes, and quality of life; glycemic control; cardiovascular disease risk factors; and economic measures and health service utilization. A total of 72 studies described in 84 articles were identified for this review. Positive effects of self-management training on knowledge, frequency and accuracy of self-monitoring of blood glucose, self-reported dietary habits, and glycemic control were demonstrated in studies with short follow-up (<6 months). Effects of interventions on lipids, physical activity, weight, and blood pressure were variable. With longer follow-up, interventions that used regular reinforcement throughout follow-up were sometimes effective in improving glycemic control. Educational interventions that involved patient collaboration may be more effective than didactic interventions in improving glycemic control, weight, and lipid profiles. No studies demonstrated the effectiveness of self-management training on cardiovascular disease-related events or mortality; no economic analyses included indirect costs; few studies examined health-care utilization. Performance, selection, attrition, and detection bias were common in studies reviewed, and external generalizability was often limited. Evidence supports the effectiveness of self-management training in type 2 diabetes, particularly in the short term. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of self-management interventions on sustained glycemic control, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and ultimately, microvascular and cardiovascular disease and quality of life.
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            Fixed-dose combinations improve medication compliance: a meta-analysis.

            Compliance with treatment is a sine qua non for successful treatment of chronic conditions like hypertension. Fixed-dose combinations are designed to simplify the medication regimen and potentially improve compliance. However the data on comparison of fixed-dose combination with free-drug regimen to improve patient's medication compliance is limited. We conducted a MEDLINE search of studies using the words fixed-dose combinations, compliance and/or adherence. The inclusion criteria were studies which involved fixed-dose combination versus free-drug components of the regimen given separately. Only studies which reported patient's compliance were included. Of the 68 studies on fixed-dose combinations, only 9 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were in patients with tuberculosis, 4 in the hypertensive population, 1 in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and 2 in the diabetic population. A total of 11,925 patients on fixed-dose combination were compared against 8317 patients on free-drug component regimen. Fixed-dose combination resulted in a 26% decrease in the risk of non-compliance compared with free-drug component regimen (pooled relative risk [RR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.80; P <.0001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity in this analysis (chi(2)=14.49, df=8; P=.07). A subgroup analysis of the 4 studies on hypertension showed that fixed-dose combination (pooled RR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.81; P <.0001) decreased the risk of medication non-compliance by 24% compared with free-drug combination regimen. Fixed-dose combination decreases the risk of medication non-compliance and should be considered in patients with chronic conditions like hypertension for improving medication compliance which can translate into better clinical outcomes.
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              Depression and diabetes: impact of depressive symptoms on adherence, function, and costs.

              Depression is common among patients with chronic medical illness. We explored the impact of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with diabetes on diabetes self-care, adherence to medication regimens, functioning, and health care costs. We administered a questionnaire to 367 patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes from 2 health maintenance organization primary care clinics to obtain data on demographics, depressive symptoms, diabetes knowledge, functioning, and diabetes self-care. On the basis of automated data, we measured medical comorbidity, health care costs, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels, and oral hypoglycemic prescription refills. Using depressive symptom severity tertiles (low, medium, or high), we performed regression analyses to determine the impact of depressive symptoms on adherence to diabetes self-care and oral hypoglycemic regimens, HbA(1c) levels, functional impairment, and health care costs. Compared with patients in the low-severity depression symptom tertile, those in the medium- and high-severity tertiles were significantly less adherent to dietary recommendations. Patients in the high-severity tertile were significantly distinct from those in the low-severity tertile by having a higher percentage of days in nonadherence to oral hypoglycemic regimens (15% vs 7%); poorer physical and mental functioning; greater probability of having any emergency department, primary care, specialty care, medical inpatient, and mental health costs; and among users of health care within categories, higher primary (51% higher), ambulatory (75% higher), and total health care costs (86% higher). Depressive symptom severity is associated with poorer diet and medication regimen adherence, functional impairment, and higher health care costs in primary care diabetic patients. Further studies testing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of enhanced models of care of diabetic patients with depression are needed. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:3278-3285.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Multidiscip Healthc
                J Multidiscip Healthc
                JMDH
                jmulthealth
                Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
                Dove
                1178-2390
                29 April 2019
                2019
                : 12
                : 299-314
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina , Messina, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Cognitive Sciences, Psychology, Educational and Cultural Studies (COSPECS), University of Messina , Messina, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina , Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fabio FrisoneDepartment of Cognitive Sciences, Psychology, Educational and Cultural Studies (COSPECS), University of Messina , Via Panoramica dello Stretto 690, Messina98168, ItalyTel +39 335 561 3422Email fabio.frisone@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                193752
                10.2147/JMDH.S193752
                6499139
                © 2019 Settineri et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 108, Pages: 16
                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                self-management, diabetes, concordance, empowerment, compliance, adherence

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