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      Reassessment of the Species in the Euwallacea Fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Complex after the Rediscovery of the “Lost” Type Specimen

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          Abstract

          Ambrosia beetles of the Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff, 1868) species complex are emerging tree pests, responsible for significant damage to orchards and ecosystems around the world. The species complex comprises seven described species, all of which are nearly identical. Given that the morphology-defined species boundaries have been ambiguous, historically, there has been much disagreement on species validity, which was compounded by the presumed loss of the type series of E. fornicatus. The species complex was recently reviewed using morphometrics to associate the type specimens to the clades delineated with molecular data under the assumption of the lost type series. We rediscovered a syntype of Xyleborus fornicatus, and reevaluated the species in the complex using morphometrics. We propose the following taxonomic changes to the species complex: Euwallacea fornicatus (= E. tapatapaoensis (Schedl, 1951); = E. whitfordiodendrus (Schedl, 1942)) syn. res.); E. fornicatior (Eggers, 1923) (= E. schultzei (Schedl, 1951) syn. nov.); E. kuroshio (Gomez and Hulcr, 2018) and E. perbrevis (Schedl, 1951) stat. res. These taxonomic changes shift the species name associated with the widely used common names for two taxa, namely: Euwallacea fornicatus should be used for the “Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer”, and E. perbrevis for the “Tea Shot Hole Borer clade a”. A lectotype is designated for X. fornicatus in order to stabilize the use of the name.

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          Exotic bark- and wood-boring Coleoptera in the United States: recent establishments and interceptions

           Robert Haack (2006)
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            Review of American Xyleborina (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Occurring North of Mexico, with an Illustrated Key

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              The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                22 August 2019
                September 2019
                : 10
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
                [2 ]School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, 136 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
                [3 ]161/2 Mu 5, Soi Wat Pranon, T. Donkaew, A. Maerim, Chiangmai 50180, Thailand
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: cognato@ 123456msu.edu ; Tel.: +1-51-7432-2369
                Article
                insects-10-00261
                10.3390/insects10090261
                6780773
                31443370
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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