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      Molecular Subtyping and Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Chicken Livers in Beijing, China

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          Abstract

          The incidence of Campylobacter outbreaks caused by contaminated chicken livers has recently increased. We aimed to investigate where contamination occurs, and the drug resistance and genetic characteristics of Campylobacter from chicken livers sold in Beijing, China. The bacteria were isolated from 103 raw chicken livers bought from the retail market in two districts of Beijing. The E-test, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques (PFGE) were used to study the antibiotic susceptibility and genetic sub-typing of the obtained isolates. A total of 42 Campylobacter isolates (30 C. jejuni and 12 C. coli) were obtained from 38 samples of the 103 samples tested (37%, 38/103). The rates of resistance against the tested antibiotics were as follows: erythromycin (2.38%, 1/42), azithromycin (4.76%, 2/42), streptomycin (4.76%, 2/40), gentamicin (40.47%, 17/42), chloramphenicol (11.90%, 5/42), ampicillin (23.81%, 10/42), nalidixic acid (92.85%, 39/42), ciprofloxacin (90.48%, 38/40), doxycycline (78.57%, 33/42), and tetracycline (83.33%, 35/42). The isolates were obtained both from the interior and exterior of the liver samples. Seven sequence types were identified among the 42 isolates; 23 PFGE patterns were found among 32 of the 42 isolates. Different PFGE patterns were identified in isolates from the interior and exterior of the same sample. In conclusion, both the interior and exterior of chicken livers can be contaminated with Campylobacter. They may therefore be a major food source of human campylobacteriosis in Beijing.

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          Most cited references15

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          Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

          Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies.
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            Estimates of the burden of foodborne illness in Canada for 30 specified pathogens and unspecified agents, circa 2006.

            Estimates of foodborne illness are important for setting food safety priorities and making public health policies. The objective of this analysis is to estimate domestically acquired, foodborne illness in Canada, while identifying data gaps and areas for further research. Estimates of illness due to 30 pathogens and unspecified agents were based on data from the 2000-2010 time period from Canadian surveillance systems, relevant international literature, and the Canadian census population for 2006. The modeling approach required accounting for under-reporting and underdiagnosis and to estimate the proportion of illness domestically acquired and through foodborne transmission. To account for uncertainty, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to generate a mean estimate and 90% credible interval. It is estimated that each year there are 1.6 million (1.2-2.0 million) and 2.4 million (1.8-3.0 million) episodes of domestically acquired foodborne illness related to 30 known pathogens and unspecified agents, respectively, for a total estimate of 4.0 million (3.1-5.0 million) episodes of domestically acquired foodborne illness in Canada. Norovirus, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter spp., and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are the leading pathogens and account for approximately 90% of the pathogen-specific total. Approximately one in eight Canadians experience an episode of domestically acquired foodborne illness each year in Canada. These estimates cannot be compared with prior crude estimates in Canada to assess illness trends as different methodologies were used.
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              Campylobacter genotypes from food animals, environmental sources and clinical disease in Scotland 2005/6.

              A nationwide multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) survey was implemented to analyze patterns of host association among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from clinical disease in Scotland (July 2005-September 2006), food animals (chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs and turkey), non-food animals (wild birds) and the environment. Sequence types (STs) were determined for 5247 clinical isolates and 999 from potential disease sources (augmented with 2420 published STs). Certain STs were over represented among particular sample sets/host groups. These host-associated STs were identified for all sample groups in both Campylobacter species and host associated clonal complexes (groups of related STs) were characterized for C. jejuni. Some genealogical lineages were present in both human disease and food animal samples. This provided evidence for the relative importance of different infection routes/food animal sources in human disease. These results show robust associations of particular genotypes with potential infection sources supporting the contention that contaminated poultry is a major source of human disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Infectious Diseases and Translational Medicine
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                International Biological and Medical Journals Publishing House Co., Limited (Room E16, 3/f, Yongda Commercial Building, No.97, Bonham Stand (Sheung Wan), HongKong )
                2411-2917
                20 November 2016
                20 November 2016
                : 2
                : 3
                : 86-89
                Affiliations
                From State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
                From State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
                From State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
                From State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
                From State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Prof. Maojun Zhang, Telephone: +86-10-58900755; Fax: +86-10-58900700; Email: zhangmaojun@ 123456icdc.cn .

                †: These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                10.11979/idtm.201603002
                175787d3-311c-4c8d-b5c4-5618d2dcce3d

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 15, Pages: 4
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                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Campylobacter,Molecular sub-typing,Antibiotic resistance,Chicken livers

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