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      Evaluation of laboratory parameters and symptoms after parathyroidectomy in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

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          Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the laboratory parameters and symptoms after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), and to briefly analyze the different therapeutic effects of the three surgical methods.

          Methods: A total of 182 dialysis patients who underwent PTX between February 2012 and January 2018 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included in this study and followed for 12 months. Laboratory parameters such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured before and after operation. According to the follow-up time and type of operation, we calculated the percentage of laboratory indicators reaching the recommended range of the KDIGO guidelines after surgery. We also analyzed the improvement of bone pain and pruritus, as well as surgical complications.

          Results: After the operation, the levels of iPTH, Ca, and P decreased significantly at each time point. ALP increased at the first postoperative week and gradually decreased to normal range after 3 months. Symptoms, such as bone pain and pruritus, were significantly relieved. According to the follow-up time and three surgical methods (subtotal parathyroidectomy, total parathyroidectomy, total parathyroidectomy plus autologous transplantation), we found that the ratio of each laboratory parameter reaching the recommended range of KDIGO guidelines was significantly different.

          Conclusion: PTX is a safe and effective therapy for treating SHPT that is refractory to medical therapies and accompanied by related signs and symptoms in dialysis patients. All three operative techniques were effective in controlling SHPT.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Hyperparathyroidism is due to increased activity of the parathyroid glands, either from an intrinsic abnormal change altering excretion of parathyroid hormone (primary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism) or from an extrinsic abnormal change affecting calcium homoeostasis stimulating production of parathyroid hormone (secondary hyperparathyroidism). Primary hyperparathyroidism is the third most common endocrine disorder, with the highest incidence in postmenopausal women. Asymptomatic disease is common, and severe disease with renal stones and metabolic bone disease arises less frequently now than it did 20-30 years ago. Primary hyperparathyroidism can be cured by surgical removal of an adenoma, increasingly by minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Medical management of mild disease is possible with bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, and calcimimetics. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism, particularly in elderly people. However, the biochemical definition of vitamin D deficiency and its treatment are subject to much debate. Secondary hyperparathyroidism as the result of chronic kidney disease is important in the genesis of renal bone disease, and several new treatments could help achieve the guidelines set out by the kidney disease outcomes quality initiative.
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            Etiology and prognostic significance of severe uremic pruritus in chronic hemodialysis patients.

            Although uremia is well known as the most common cause of pruritus, the mechanisms of pruritus in chronic hemodialysis patients remain unclear. The purpose was to characterize uremic pruritus in more detail and to investigate whether severe pruritus is a marker for poor prognosis. A total of 1773 adult hemodialysis patients were studied. A questionnaire was given to each patient to assess the intensity and frequency, as well as pruritus-related sleep disturbance. We analyzed the relationship between clinical and laboratory data and the severity of pruritus in hemodialysis patients and followed them for 24 months prospectively. In total, 453 patients had severe pruritus with a visual analogue scale (VAS) score more than or equal to 7.0. Among them, more than 70% complained of sleep disturbance, whereas the majority of patients with a VAS score of less than 7.0 had no sleep disturbance. Male gender, high levels of blood urea nitrogen, beta2-microglobulin (beta2MG), hypercalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia were identified as independent risk factors for the development of severe pruritus, whereas a low level of calcium and intact-parathyroid hormone were associated with reduced risk. During the follow-up, 171 (9.64%) patients died. The prognosis of patients with severe pruritus was significantly worse than the others. Moreover, severe pruritus was independently associated with death even after adjusting for other clinical factors including diabetes mellitus, age, beta2MG, and albumin. Severe uremic pruritus caused by multiple factors, not only affects the quality of life but may also be associated with poor outcome in chronic hemodialysis patients.
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              Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor density is associated with a more severe form of parathyroid hyperplasia in chronic uremic patients.

              The resistance of parathyroid cells to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in uremic hyperparathyroidism is thought to be caused, in part, by a 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR) deficiency in the parathyroids. However, results of biochemical studies addressing VDR numbers in the parathyroids are controversial. Several studies have found VDR content to be decreased in the parathyroids of uremic patients and animals, while others have found no such decrease in the parathyroids of uremic animals. To clarify the role of VDR, we investigated VDR distribution in surgically-excised parathyroids obtained from chronic dialysis patients by immunohistochemistry. We classified the parathyroids as exhibiting nodular or diffuse hyperplasia. Our studies demonstrated a lower density of VDR in the parathyroids showing nodular hyperplasia than in those showing diffuse hyperplasia. Even in the parathyroids showing diffuse hyperplasia, nodule-forming areas were present; these areas were virtually negative for VDR staining. A significant negative correlation was found between VDR density and the weight of the parathyroids. These findings indicate that the conflicting results of biochemical studies may be caused by the heterogeneous distribution of VDR; the decreased VDR density in parathyroids may contribute to the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism and to the proliferation of parathyroid cells that is seen in uremia.

                Author and article information

                Ren Fail
                Ren Fail
                Renal Failure
                Taylor & Francis
                1 October 2019
                : 41
                : 1
                : 921-929
                Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University , Suzhou, China
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                CONTACT Huaying Shen shenhy513@ Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University , 1055 San-Xiang Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215004, China
                © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 5, Pages: 9, Words: 5743
                Funded by: National Nature Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81400762
                Funded by: Science and Technology Project of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China
                Award ID: SYS201469
                This work was supported by grants from the National Nature Science Foundation of China (81400762), and the Science and Technology Project of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China (SYS201469).
                Clinical Study


                dialysis patients, parathyroidectomy, secondary hyperparathyroidism, ipth


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