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      Reinstatement of Leuctra biellensis Festa, 1942 (Plecoptera, Leuctridae)

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      Alpine Entomology

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Both molecular and morphologic characters support the reinstatement of Leuctra biellensis Festa, 1942 as a valid species distinct from Leuctra nigra (Olivier, 1811). Genetic distances between L. biellensis and the different populations of L. nigra are around 9%, while intraspecific distances among L. nigra haploclades are less than 1%. Morphologically, the two species can be separated in male adult specimens by the shape of the two teeth on tergite VIII, by the lateral edges of tergites and by the distal expansion of the paraprocts. Leuctra biellensis occurs on the southern slope of the Alps in Italy and Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden), while L. nigra has a wide distribution in Central and Northern Europe. As the type material of L. biellensis was lost, and to avoid future confusion between the two species, we designate as neotype a male imago collected at the type locality.

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          Most cited references 12

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          DNA barcoding and taxonomy in Diptera: a tale of high intraspecific variability and low identification success.

          DNA barcoding and DNA taxonomy have recently been proposed as solutions to the crisis of taxonomy and received significant attention from scientific journals, grant agencies, natural history museums, and mainstream media. Here, we test two key claims of molecular taxonomy using 1333 mitochondrial COI sequences for 449 species of Diptera. We investigate whether sequences can be used for species identification ("DNA barcoding") and find a relatively low success rate (< 70%) based on tree-based and newly proposed species identification criteria. Misidentifications are due to wide overlap between intra- and interspecific genetic variability, which causes 6.5% of all query sequences to have allospecific or a mixture of allo- and conspecific (3.6%) best-matching barcodes. Even when two COI sequences are identical, there is a 6% chance that they belong to different species. We also find that 21% of all species lack unique barcodes when consensus sequences of all conspecific sequences are used. Lastly, we test whether DNA sequences yield an unambiguous species-level taxonomy when sequence profiles are assembled based on pairwise distance thresholds. We find many sequence triplets for which two of the three pairwise distances remain below the threshold, whereas the third exceeds it; i.e., it is impossible to consistently delimit species based on pairwise distances. Furthermore, for species profiles based on a 3% threshold, only 47% of all profiles are consistent with currently accepted species limits, 20% contain more than one species, and 33% only some sequences from one species; i.e., adopting such a DNA taxonomy would require the redescription of a large proportion of the known species, thus worsening the taxonomic impediment. We conclude with an outlook on the prospects of obtaining complete barcode databases and the future use of DNA sequences in a modern integrative taxonomy.
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            On the inappropriate use of Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) divergences in the DNA-barcoding literature

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              Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera fauna of Churchill (Manitoba, Canada): insights into biodiversity patterns from DNA barcoding

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Alpine Entomology
                AlpEnt
                Pensoft Publishers
                2535-0889
                May 03 2018
                May 03 2018
                : 2
                : 1
                : 35-43
                Article
                10.3897/alpento.2.23041
                © 2018

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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