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          ABSTRACT For the successful application of phytosanitary products, it is essential to understand the spraying process well. The present work aims to evaluate the spectrum and speed of the droplets produced by different spray nozzle models with air induction, working under different operating conditions. The experiment was conducted using an entirely randomized design with five repetitions in a 3 × 3 × 3 factor scheme that incorporates three nozzle models (ADIA, AIXR, and GA), three nominal flows (0.76, 1.14, and 1.51 L min−1), and three operating pressures (200, 300, and 400 kPa). The spectrum and speed of the droplets were determined directly using a real-time droplet analyzer based on high-resolution image analysis. The spray nozzle model interfered with the results. The ADIA promoted Dv0.5 (VMD) higher than AIXR and GA, reaching differences of up to 90%. The increase in pressure promoted a reduction in the droplet size; however, there was no well-defined behavior for the relationship between the flow rate and droplet size. The ADIA and AIXR gave rise to greater uniformity of the droplets in most of the evaluated conditions. The increase in pressure promoted an increase in the speed of the droplets. However, the effect of the nozzle model on this parameter was dependent on the flow.

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          Effect of nozzle type, size and pressure on spray droplet characteristics

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            Avaliação de estratégias para redução da deriva de agrotóxicos em pulverizações hidráulicas

            A deriva nas aplicações de agrotóxicos é considerada um dos maiores problemas da agricultura. Entre os fatores que a influenciam, o tamanho das gotas pulverizadas tem-se mostrado primordial. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação dos efeitos da adição de óleo vegetal emulsionável à calda de pulverização e do uso de pontas antideriva sobre o espectro de gotas e sobre o potencial de deriva de bicos de pulverização hidráulicos de jato plano. Em ambiente controlado, avaliou-se a população de gotas, por meio de um analisador de gotas por difração de raio laser, em tempo real, pulverizadas utilizando-se bicos standard, com e sem a adição de adjuvante, e bicos antideriva, na faixa de pressão de 200 a 400 kPa. Como complementação, avaliou-se também a deriva em campo, utilizando-se alvos artificiais fora da área de aplicação, procedendo-se à contagem de gotas em diferentes distâncias. Observou-se que a adição de óleo vegetal à calda de pulverização e o uso de bicos de pulverização antideriva, dotados de pré-orifício, alteraram o espectro de gotas pulverizadas, aumentando o diâmetro das gotas e diminuindo a percentagem de gotas propensas à ação dos ventos, constituindo-se, portanto, em fator auxiliar para redução da deriva.
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              Characterization of the Spray Droplet Spectra and Patterns of Four Venturi-Type Drift Reduction Nozzles

              Laboratory studies were conducted using a Malvern laser droplet/particle size analyzer to determine the droplet spectra of several venturi-type drift reduction nozzles compared to a standard single, elliptical-orifice flat fan nozzle. Spray solutions of glufosinate, glyphosate, and paraquat were applied through all combinations of five nozzle types (four drift reduction), three tip sizes, and four application pressures. Nozzles were also evaluated for pattern uniformity using water plus surfactant at one pressure. When averaged over herbicide, tip size, and pressure the venturi nozzles collectively produced larger volume median diameter (VMD) droplets than the standard nozzle. The percentage of spray volume in droplets glyphosate (460 μm) > glufosinate (400 μm), as measured by VMD. The venturi nozzles were more variable in their spray volume distribution than the standard nozzle. Utilization of venturi-type nozzles may minimize the drift potential of the herbicides evaluated but could also lead to uneven herbicide application and subsequent erratic weed control.

                Author and article information

                Engenharia Agrícola
                Eng. Agríc.
                Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola (Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil )
                December 2020
                : 40
                : 6
                : 711-718
                North Platte NE orgnameUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln USA
                Botucatu SP orgnameSão Paulo State University Brazil
                Uberlnndia Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Uberlândia Brazil
                Monte Carmelo MG orgnameFederal University of Uberlândia Brazil
                S0100-69162020000600711 S0100-6916(20)04000600711

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 8
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