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      The Role of Mental Imagery in Parkinson’s Disease Rehabilitation

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          Abstract

          Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disabling neurodegenerative disease whose manifestations span motor, sensorimotor, and sensory domains. While current therapies for PD include pharmacological, invasive, and physical interventions, there is a constant need for developing additional approaches for optimizing rehabilitation gains. Mental imagery is an emerging field in neurorehabilitation and has the potential to serve as an adjunct therapy to enhance patient function. Yet, the literature on this topic is sparse. The current paper reviews the motor, sensorimotor, and sensory domains impacted by PD using gait, balance, and pain as examples, respectively. Then, mental imagery and its potential for PD motor and non-motor rehabilitation is discussed, with an emphasis on its suitability for addressing gait, balance, and pain deficits in people with PD. Lastly, future research directions are suggested.

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          Parkinson disease

          Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability. The underlying molecular pathogenesis involves multiple pathways and mechanisms: α-synuclein proteostasis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, axonal transport and neuroinflammation. Recent research into diagnostic biomarkers has taken advantage of neuroimaging in which several modalities, including PET, single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and novel MRI techniques, have been shown to aid early and differential diagnosis. Treatment of Parkinson disease is anchored on pharmacological substitution of striatal dopamine, in addition to non-dopaminergic approaches to address both motor and non-motor symptoms and deep brain stimulation for those developing intractable L-DOPA-related motor complications. Experimental therapies have tried to restore striatal dopamine by gene-based and cell-based approaches, and most recently, aggregation and cellular transport of α-synuclein have become therapeutic targets. One of the greatest current challenges is to identify markers for prodromal disease stages, which would allow novel disease-modifying therapies to be started earlier.
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            The revised International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain: concepts, challenges, and compromises

            The current International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) definition of pain as "An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage" was recommended by the Subcommittee on Taxonomy and adopted by the IASP Council in 1979. This definition has become accepted widely by health care professionals and researchers in the pain field and adopted by several professional, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations, including the World Health Organization. In recent years, some in the field have reasoned that advances in our understanding of pain warrant a reevaluation of the definition and have proposed modifications. Therefore, in 2018, the IASP formed a 14-member, multinational Presidential Task Force comprising individuals with broad expertise in clinical and basic science related to pain, to evaluate the current definition and accompanying note and recommend whether they should be retained or changed. This review provides a synopsis of the critical concepts, the analysis of comments from the IASP membership and public, and the committee's final recommendations for revisions to the definition and notes, which were discussed over a 2-year period. The task force ultimately recommended that the definition of pain be revised to "An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with, or resembling that associated with, actual or potential tissue damage," and that the accompanying notes be updated to a bulleted list that included the etymology. The revised definition and notes were unanimously accepted by the IASP Council early this year.
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              Global, regional, and national burden of Parkinson's disease, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

              Summary Background Neurological disorders are now the leading source of disability globally, and ageing is increasing the burden of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. We aimed to determine the global burden of Parkinson's disease between 1990 and 2016 to identify trends and to enable appropriate public health, medical, and scientific responses. Methods Through a systematic analysis of epidemiological studies, we estimated global, regional, and country-specific prevalence and years of life lived with disability for Parkinson's disease from 1990 to 2016. We estimated the proportion of mild, moderate, and severe Parkinson's disease on the basis of studies that used the Hoehn and Yahr scale and assigned disability weights to each level. We jointly modelled prevalence and excess mortality risk in a natural history model to derive estimates of deaths due to Parkinson's disease. Death counts were multiplied by values from the Global Burden of Disease study's standard life expectancy to compute years of life lost. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were computed as the sum of years lived with disability and years of life lost. We also analysed results based on the Socio-demographic Index, a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility. Findings In 2016, 6·1 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 5·0–7·3) individuals had Parkinson's disease globally, compared with 2·5 million (2·0–3·0) in 1990. This increase was not solely due to increasing numbers of older people, because age-standardised prevalence rates increased by 21·7% (95% UI 18·1–25·3) over the same period (compared with an increase of 74·3%, 95% UI 69·2–79·6, for crude prevalence rates). Parkinson's disease caused 3·2 million (95% UI 2·6–4·0) DALYs and 211 296 deaths (95% UI 167 771–265 160) in 2016. The male-to-female ratios of age-standardised prevalence rates were similar in 2016 (1·40, 95% UI 1·36–1·43) and 1990 (1·37, 1·34–1·40). From 1990 to 2016, age-standardised prevalence, DALY rates, and death rates increased for all global burden of disease regions except for southern Latin America, eastern Europe, and Oceania. In addition, age-standardised DALY rates generally increased across the Socio-demographic Index. Interpretation Over the past generation, the global burden of Parkinson's disease has more than doubled as a result of increasing numbers of older people, with potential contributions from longer disease duration and environmental factors. Demographic and potentially other factors are poised to increase the future burden of Parkinson's disease substantially. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Brain Sci
                Brain Sci
                brainsci
                Brain Sciences
                MDPI
                2076-3425
                02 February 2021
                February 2021
                : 11
                : 2
                : 185
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel 4077625, Israel
                [2 ]Navigation and Accessibility Research Center of Ariel University (NARCA), Ariel University, Ariel 4077625, Israel
                [3 ]Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63108, USA; duncanr@ 123456wustl.edu (R.P.D.); earhartg@ 123456wustl.edu (G.M.E.)
                [4 ]Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
                [5 ]Department of Neuroscience, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: amitab@ 123456ariel.ac.il
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5423-326X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9639-6051
                Article
                brainsci-11-00185
                10.3390/brainsci11020185
                7913152
                33540883
                17982e78-ec2b-46ac-93b2-ed495308723f
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 31 December 2020
                : 28 January 2021
                Categories
                Review

                parkinson’s disease,rehabilitation,mental imagery,motor,sensorimotor,sensory,dynamic neuro-cognitive imagery,motor imagery

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