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      Localización con semilla radioactiva (LSR) de lesiones no palpables de la mama: Desarrollo e implementación del programa en la República Argentina Translated title: Radioactive Seed Localization for Nonpalpable Breast Lesions: Program Development & Implementation in Argentina

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          El intervencionismo en mama se inició con la localización preoperatoria de lesiones no palpables. En una segunda etapa, el desarrollo de técnicas de biopsias en las tres modalidades (mamografía, ultrasonido y resonancia magnética), reforzaron las indicaciones de localización de lesiones con histología ya confirmada. La técnica de localización en Argentina se basó casi exclusivamente en la inserción de alambres con arpones e inyección de carbón. A partir del año 2001, se ofreció como alternativa a las localizaciones con arpones la inserción de semilla de Iodo-125, considerando las ventajas para la paciente, el cirujano y el sistema hospitalario al desacoplar los turnos de quirófano y servicios de imágenes, otorgando acceso a cualquier cuadrante con incisiones cosméticas. La provisión del isótopo es la clave para instalar y atender la demanda de los usuarios, una vez que han conocido los méritos del procedimiento. En todos los ámbitos y distintos países, se verificó una lenta incorporación a la rutina de localización de lesiones con material radioactivo, primariamente por las regulaciones fundamentales y justificadas para la adquisición del isótopo. En nuestro medio y en una labor conjunta con la Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), logramos finalmente, en el año 2017, el reconocimiento de la práctica. Revisamos la bibliografía, describimos la técnica y la logística para lograr autorización de aquellos centros interesados en aplicar un procedimiento universalmente adoptado por sus ventajas respecto a los métodos tradicionales.

          Translated abstract

          Diagnostic intervention in breast disease started with preoperative localization of non- palpable lesions. Later, with the histological diagnosis obtained through biopsy techniques in mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the localization of lesions has become a must. Traditionally, in Argentina, the localization technique was exclusively based on the insertion of harpoon-shaped guided wires and carbon suspension. Since 2001, the iodine-125 radioactive seed localization has emerged as a reliable and advantageous alternative for the patient, the surgeon and the hospital system, reducing scheduling conflicts between the breast imaging department and the surgical department, and allowing access to any quadrant with cosmetic incisions. The isotope provision is the key to satisfying the users demand, once they have known the merits of the procedure. The implementation of radioactive material for the localization of lesions has been tardy in all fields and in different countries, mainly due to justified regulations related to the acquisition of the isotope. As a result of joint efforts with the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (Nuclear Regulatory Authority), the practice finally gained its deserved recognition in 2017. We conducted a review of the existing literature and described the technique and the logistics to obtain the approval of the sites that were interested in the deployment of a widely used procedure that has proved to be more advantageous than traditional methods.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Marking axillary lymph nodes with radioactive iodine seeds for axillary staging after neoadjuvant systemic treatment in breast cancer patients: the MARI procedure.

          The MARI procedure [marking the axillary lymph node with radioactive iodine (I) seeds] is a new minimal invasive method to assess the pathological response of nodal metastases after neoadjuvant systemic treatment (NST) in patients with breast cancer. This method allows axilla-conserving surgery in patients responding well to NST.
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            Randomized prospective evaluation of a novel technique for biopsy or lumpectomy of nonpalpable breast lesions: radioactive seed versus wire localization.

            Standard wire localization (WL) and excision of nonpalpable breast lesions has several shortcomings. Ninety-seven women with nonpalpable breast lesions were prospectively randomized to radioactive seed localization (RSL) or WL. For RSL, a titanium seed containing 125I was placed at the site of the lesion by using radiographical guidance. The surgeon used a handheld gamma detector to locate and excise the seed and lesion. Both techniques resulted in 100% retrieval of the lesions. Fewer RSL patients required resection of additional margins than WL patients (26% vs. 57%, respectively, P = .02). There were no significant differences in mean times for operative excision (5.4 vs. 6.1 minutes) or radiographical localization (13.9 vs. 13.2 minutes). There were also no significant differences in the subjective ease of the procedures as rated by surgeons, radiologists, and patients. All WLs were carried out on the same day as the excision, whereas RSL was performed up to 5 days before the operative procedure. RSL is as effective as WL for the excision of nonpalpable breast lesions and reduces the incidence of pathologically involved margins of excision. RSL also reduces scheduling conflicts and may allow elimination of intraoperative specimen mammography. RSL is an attractive alternative to WL.
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              Selective surgical localization of axillary lymph nodes containing metastases in patients with breast cancer: a prospective feasibility trial.

              Nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy of abnormal lymph nodes helps to define the extent of breast cancer before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A clip can be placed to designate lymph nodes with documented metastases. Targeted axillary dissection or selective removal of lymph nodes known to contain metastases (clip-containing nodes) as well as sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) may provide more accurate assessment of the pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Revista argentina de radiología
                Rev. argent. radiol.
                Sociedad Argentina de Radiología (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, , Argentina )
                September 2019
                : 83
                : 3
                : 102-112
                Rosario Santa Fe orgnameCentro de Imágenes Médicas Argentina
                S1852-99922019000300003 S1852-9992(19)08300300003

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 11
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