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      An overview of microRNAs: Biology, functions, therapeutics, and analysis methods : SALIMINEJAD et al.

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d9035738e83">MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs, which function in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. They are powerful regulators of various cellular activities including cell growth, differentiation, development, and apoptosis. They have been linked to many diseases, and currently miRNA-mediated clinical trial has shown promising results for treatment of cancer and viral infection. This review provides an overview and update on miRNAs biogenesis, regulation of miRNAs expression, their biological functions, and role of miRNAs in epigenetics and cell-cell communication. In addition, alteration of miRNAs following exercise, their association with diseases, and therapeutic potential will be explained. Finally, miRNA bioinformatics tools and conventional methods for miRNA detection and quantification will be discussed. </p>

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          Most cited references65

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          Nuclear export of microRNA precursors.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which function as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes, are processed from larger transcripts by sequential action of nuclear and cytoplasmic ribonuclease III-like endonucleases. We show that Exportin-5 (Exp5) mediates efficient nuclear export of short miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) and that its depletion by RNA interference results in reduced miRNA levels. Exp5 binds correctly processed pre-miRNAs directly and specifically, in a Ran guanosine triphosphate-dependent manner, but interacts only weakly with extended pre-miRNAs that yield incorrect miRNAs when processed by Dicer in vitro. Thus, Exp5 is key to miRNA biogenesis and may help coordinate nuclear and cytoplasmic processing steps.
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            MicroRNA profiling: approaches and considerations.

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of thousands of genes in a broad range of organisms in both normal physiological contexts and in disease contexts. miRNA expression profiling is gaining popularity because miRNAs, as key regulators in gene expression networks, can influence many biological processes and also show promise as biomarkers for disease. Technological advances have spawned a multitude of platforms for miRNA profiling, and an understanding of the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches can aid in their effective use. Here, we review the major considerations for carrying out and interpreting results of miRNA-profiling studies.
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              Is Open Access

              DIANA-TarBase v8: a decade-long collection of experimentally supported miRNA–gene interactions

              Abstract DIANA-TarBase v8 (http://www.microrna.gr/tarbase) is a reference database devoted to the indexing of experimentally supported microRNA (miRNA) targets. Its eighth version is the first database indexing >1 million entries, corresponding to ∼670 000 unique miRNA-target pairs. The interactions are supported by >33 experimental methodologies, applied to ∼600 cell types/tissues under ∼451 experimental conditions. It integrates information on cell-type specific miRNA–gene regulation, while hundreds of thousands of miRNA-binding locations are reported. TarBase is coming of age, with more than a decade of continuous support in the non-coding RNA field. A new module has been implemented that enables the browsing of interactions through different filtering combinations. It permits easy retrieval of positive and negative miRNA targets per species, methodology, cell type and tissue. An incorporated ranking system is utilized for the display of interactions based on the robustness of their supporting methodologies. Statistics, pie-charts and interactive bar-plots depicting the database content are available through a dedicated result page. An intuitive interface is introduced, providing a user-friendly application with flexible options to different queries.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Cellular Physiology
                J Cell Physiol
                Wiley
                00219541
                May 2019
                May 2019
                November 23 2018
                : 234
                : 5
                : 5451-5465
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center; Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Tehran Iran
                [2 ]Genetics Research Center; University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; Tehran Iran
                Article
                10.1002/jcp.27486
                30471116
                17a83df7-74da-459a-98fe-33ca37fe01f6
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

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