Claudio Ronco 1 , 2 , * , Peter McCullough 3 , Stefan D. Anker 4 , 5 , Inder Anand 6 , Nadia Aspromonte 7 , Sean M. Bagshaw 8 , Rinaldo Bellomo 9 , Tomas Berl 10 , Ilona Bobek 1 , Dinna N. Cruz 1 , 2 , Luciano Daliento 11 , Andrew Davenport 12 , Mikko Haapio 13 , Hans Hillege 14 , Andrew A. House 15 , Nevin Katz 16 , Alan Maisel 17 , Sunil Mankad 18 , Pierluigi Zanco 19 , Alexandre Mebazaa 20 , Alberto Palazzuoli 21 , Federico Ronco 11 , Andrew Shaw 22 , Geoff Sheinfeld 23 , Sachin Soni 1 , 24 , Giorgio Vescovo 25 , Nereo Zamperetti 26 , Piotr Ponikowski 27 , for the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) consensus group
25 December 2009
A consensus conference on cardio-renal syndromes (CRS) was held in Venice Italy, in September 2008 under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). The following topics were matter of discussion after a systematic literature review and the appraisal of the best available evidence: definition/classification system; epidemiology; diagnostic criteria and biomarkers; prevention/protection strategies; management and therapy. The umbrella term CRS was used to identify a disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction in the other organ. Different syndromes were identified and classified into five subtypes. Acute CRS (type 1): acute worsening of heart function (AHF–ACS) leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction. Chronic cardio-renal syndrome (type 2): chronic abnormalities in heart function (CHF-CHD) leading to kidney injury and/or dysfunction. Acute reno-cardiac syndrome (type 3): acute worsening of kidney function (AKI) leading to heart injury and/or dysfunction. Chronic reno-cardiac syndrome (type 4): chronic kidney disease leading to heart injury, disease, and/or dysfunction. Secondary CRS (type 5): systemic conditions leading to simultaneous injury and/or dysfunction of heart and kidney. Consensus statements concerning epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and management strategies are discussed in the paper for each of the syndromes.