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Update on extended-release opioids in pain management

Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery

Informa Healthcare

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      Most cited references 26

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      Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain.

      Use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain has increased substantially. The American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine commissioned a systematic review of the evidence on chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to review the evidence and formulate recommendations. Although evidence is limited, the expert panel concluded that chronic opioid therapy can be an effective therapy for carefully selected and monitored patients with chronic noncancer pain. However, opioids are also associated with potentially serious harms, including opioid-related adverse effects and outcomes related to the abuse potential of opioids. The recommendations presented in this document provide guidance on patient selection and risk stratification; informed consent and opioid management plans; initiation and titration of chronic opioid therapy; use of methadone; monitoring of patients on chronic opioid therapy; dose escalations, high-dose opioid therapy, opioid rotation, and indications for discontinuation of therapy; prevention and management of opioid-related adverse effects; driving and work safety; identifying a medical home and when to obtain consultation; management of breakthrough pain; chronic opioid therapy in pregnancy; and opioid-related policies. Safe and effective chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain requires clinical skills and knowledge in both the principles of opioid prescribing and on the assessment and management of risks associated with opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion. Although evidence is limited in many areas related to use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain, this guideline provides recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary expert panel after a systematic review of the evidence.
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        Trends in abuse of Oxycontin and other opioid analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004.

        OxyContin (Purdue Pharma L.P., Stamford, Conn) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995 as a sustained-release preparation of oxycodone hydrochloride and was thought to have much lower abuse potential than immediate-release oxycodone because of its slow-release properties. However, beginning in 2000, widespread reports of OxyContin abuse surfaced. In response, Purdue Pharma L.P. sponsored the development of a proactive abuse surveillance program, named the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) system. In this paper, we describe results obtained from one aspect of RADARS--the use of drug abuse experts (ie, key informants)--as a source of data on the prevalence and magnitude of abuse of prescription drugs. The results indicate that prescription drug abuse has become prevalent, with cases reported in 60% of the zip codes surveyed. The prevalence of abuse was rank ordered as follows: OxyContin >or= hydrocodone > other oxycodone > methadone > morphine > hydromorphone > fentanyl > buprenorphine. In terms of the magnitude of abuse (>or=5 cases/100,000 persons in a 3-digit zip code), modest growth was seen with all analgesics over the 10 calendar quarters we monitored, but was most pronounced with OxyContin and hydrocodone. These results indicate that OxyContin abuse is a pervasive problem in this country, but that it needs to be considered in the context of a general pattern of increasing prescription drug abuse. Over the past 5 years, there have been reports, frequently anecdotal, that opioid analgesic abuse has evolved into a national epidemic. In this study, we report systematic data to indicate that opioid analgesic abuse has in fact increased among street and recreational drug users, with OxyContin and hydrocodone products the most frequently abused. Steps need to be taken to reduce prescription drug abuse, but very great care needs to be exercised in the nature of these actions so the legitimate and appropriate use of these drugs in the treatment of pain is not compromised as a result.
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          Opioid therapy for chronic nonmalignant pain: a review of the critical issues.

          The controversy surrounding the long-term use of opioid drugs in patients with nonmalignant pain has intensified in recent years. This debate is driven by a new willingness to consider the potential benefits of an approach that has been traditionally rejected as invariably ineffective and unsafe. The published literature continues to be very limited, but a growing clinical experience, combined with a critical reevaluation of issues related to efficacy, safety, and addiction or abuse, suggests that there is a subpopulation of patients with chronic pain that can achieve sustained partial analgesia from opioid therapy without the occurrence of intolerable side effects or the development of aberrant drug-related behaviors. Future research must confirm this impression through controlled clinical trials and clarify those factors that may predict therapeutic success or failure. For the present, the clinician who contemplates this approach must have a clear grasp of the relevant issues and an understanding of the guidelines for treatment and monitoring that have proved useful in practice.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
            Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
            Informa Healthcare
            1742-5247
            1744-7593
            December 04 2013
            February 2014
            December 04 2013
            February 2014
            : 11
            : 2
            : 155-158
            10.1517/17425247.2014.866090
            © 2014

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