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      Bee Venom Phospholipase A 2: Yesterday’s Enemy Becomes Today’s Friend

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      Toxins

      MDPI

      bee venom, phospholipase A2, immunity

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          Abstract

          Bee venom therapy has been used to treat immune-related diseases such as arthritis for a long time. Recently, it has revealed that group III secretory phospholipase A 2 from bee venom (bee venom group III sPLA 2) has in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA 2. Notably, new experimental data have shown protective immune responses of bee venom group III sPLA 2 against a wide range of diseases including asthma, Parkinson’s disease, and drug-induced organ inflammation. It is critical to evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of bee venom group III sPLA 2 because this enzyme is known to be the major allergen of bee venom that can cause anaphylactic shock. For many decades, efforts have been made to avoid its adverse effects. At high concentrations, exposure to bee venom group III sPLA 2 can result in damage to cellular membranes and necrotic cell death. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA 2 on several immunological diseases and described the detailed mechanisms of bee venom group III sPLA 2 in regulating various immune responses and physiopathological changes.

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          Regulatory T cells: mechanisms of differentiation and function.

          The immune system has evolved to mount an effective defense against pathogens and to minimize deleterious immune-mediated inflammation caused by commensal microorganisms, immune responses against self and environmental antigens, and metabolic inflammatory disorders. Regulatory T (Treg) cell-mediated suppression serves as a vital mechanism of negative regulation of immune-mediated inflammation and features prominently in autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders, allergy, acute and chronic infections, cancer, and metabolic inflammation. The discovery that Foxp3 is the transcription factor that specifies the Treg cell lineage facilitated recent progress in understanding the biology of regulatory T cells. In this review, we discuss cellular and molecular mechanisms in the differentiation and function of these cells.
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            Phospholipase A2 enzymes: physical structure, biological function, disease implication, chemical inhibition, and therapeutic intervention.

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              The PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway delivers an anti-apoptotic signal.

              Serum and certain growth factors have the ability to inhibit programmed cell death (apoptosis) and promote survival. The mechanism by which growth factors deliver an anti-apoptotic signal and the mechanism by which this survival signal is uncoupled from mitogenesis are not clear. We studied five downstream effectors of growth factor receptors--Ras, Raf, Src, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and Akt (PKB)--for their abilities to block apoptosis. Activated forms of Ras, Raf, and Src, although transforming, were not sufficient to deliver a survival signal upon serum withdrawal. In contrast, inhibition of PI 3-kinase accelerated apoptosis, and an activated form of the serine/threonine kinase Akt, a downstream effector of PI 3-kinase, blocked apoptosis. The ability of Akt to promote survival was dependent on and proportional to its kinase activity. In Rat1a fibroblasts, activated Akt did not alter Bcl-2 or Bcl-X(L) expression but inhibited Ced3/ICE-like activity. Thus, the PI 3-kinase/Akt (PKB) signaling pathway transduces a survival signal that ultimately blocks Ced3/ICE-like activity. These results suggest that uncoupling of survival and mitogenesis can be explained by differing abilities of distinct mitogens to efficiently induce the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                22 February 2016
                February 2016
                : 8
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoeki-Dong, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701, Korea; glee@ 123456khu.ac.kr
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hbae@ 123456khu.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-2-961-9316; Fax: +82-2-962-9316
                Article
                toxins-08-00048
                10.3390/toxins8020048
                4773801
                26907347
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular medicine

                bee venom, immunity, phospholipase a2

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