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      Evaluation of Modified Portable Digital Camera for Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy

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          Abstract

          Aims: To describe a portable wide-field noncontact digital camera for posterior segment photography. Methods: The digital camera has a compound lens consisting of two optical elements (a 90-dpt and a 20-dpt lens) attached to a 7.2-megapixel camera. White-light-emitting diodes are used to illuminate the fundus and reduce source reflection. The camera settings are set to candlelight mode, the optic zoom standardized to ×2.4 and the focus is manually set to 3.0 m. Results: The new technique provides quality wide-angle digital images of the retina (60°) in patients with dilated pupils, at a fraction of the cost of established digital fundus photography. Conclusions: The modified digital camera is a useful alternative technique to acquire fundus images and provides a tool for screening posterior segment conditions, including diabetic retinopathy in a variety of clinical settings.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Telemedicine screening of diabetic retinopathy using a hand-held fundus camera.

          The objective was to evaluate digital images of the retina from a handheld fundus camera (Nidek NM-100) for suitability in telemedicine screening of diabetic retinopathy. A handheld fundus camera (Nidek) and a standard fundus camera (Zeiss) were used to photograph 49 eyes from 25 consecutive patients attending our diabetic clinic. One patient had cataracts, making it impossible to get a quality image of one of the eyes (retina). The Nidek images were digitized, compressed, and stored in a Fujix DF-10M digitizer supplied with the camera. The digital images and the photographs were presented separately in a random order to three ophthalmologists. The quality of the images was ranked as good, acceptable or unacceptable for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis. The images were also evaluated for the presence of microaneurysms, blot hemorrhages, exudates, fibrous tissue, previous photocoagulation, and new vessel formation. kappa Values were computed for agreement between the photographs and digital images. Overall agreement between the photographs and digital images was poor (kappa < 0.30). On average, only 24% of the digital images were graded as being good quality and 56% as having an acceptable quality. However, 93% of the photographs were graded as good-quality images for diagnosis. The results indicate that the digital images from the handheld fundus camera may not be suitable for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The images shown on the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen of the camera were of good quality. However, the images produced by the digitizer (Fujix DF-10M) attached to the camera were not as good as the images shown on the LCD screen. A better digitizing system may produce better quality images from the Nidek camera.
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            Efficacy and reliability of fundus digital camera as a screening tool for diabetic retinopathy in Kuwait.

            Many screening and follow-up methods are available for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, once patients develop retinopathy, it is unclear as to what method should be used for their review. This study is designed to assess the correlation between fundus digital image and clinical examination and to develop a screening program for the early detection of sight-threatening DR using a Canon CF 60 UV fundus camera.
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              Fundus imaging and the telemedical management of diabetes

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2009
                July 2009
                28 May 2009
                : 42
                : 1
                : 60-62
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida-College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Fla., USA
                Article
                219687 Ophthalmic Res 2009;42:60–62
                10.1159/000219687
                19478543
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 5, Pages: 3
                Categories
                Short Communication

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