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      Diversity, biogeography and the global flows of alien amphibians and reptiles

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          Additive threats from pathogens, climate and land-use change for global amphibian diversity.

          Amphibian population declines far exceed those of other vertebrate groups, with 30% of all species listed as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The causes of these declines are a matter of continued research, but probably include climate change, land-use change and spread of the pathogenic fungal disease chytridiomycosis. Here we assess the spatial distribution and interactions of these primary threats in relation to the global distribution of amphibian species. We show that the greatest proportions of species negatively affected by climate change are projected to be found in Africa, parts of northern South America and the Andes. Regions with the highest projected impact of land-use and climate change coincide, but there is little spatial overlap with regions highly threatened by the fungal disease. Overall, the areas harbouring the richest amphibian faunas are disproportionately more affected by one or multiple threat factors than areas with low richness. Amphibian declines are likely to accelerate in the twenty-first century, because multiple drivers of extinction could jeopardize their populations more than previous, mono-causal, assessments have suggested.
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            Invasion success of vertebrates in Europe and North America.

            Species become invasive if they (i) are introduced to a new range, (ii) establish themselves, and (iii) spread. To address the global problems caused by invasive species, several studies investigated steps ii and iii of this invasion process. However, only one previous study looked at step i and examined the proportion of species that have been introduced beyond their native range. We extend this research by investigating all three steps for all freshwater fish, mammals, and birds native to Europe or North America. A higher proportion of European species entered North America than vice versa. However, the introduction rate from Europe to North America peaked in the late 19th century, whereas it is still rising in the other direction. There is no clear difference in invasion success between the two directions, so neither the imperialism dogma (that Eurasian species are exceptionally successful invaders) is supported, nor is the contradictory hypothesis that North America offers more biotic resistance to invaders than Europe because of its less disturbed and richer biota. Our results do not support the tens rule either: that approximately 10% of all introduced species establish themselves and that approximately 10% of established species spread. We find a success of approximately 50% at each step. In comparison, only approximately 5% of native vertebrates were introduced in either direction. These figures show that, once a vertebrate is introduced, it has a high potential to become invasive. Thus, it is crucial to minimize the number of species introductions to effectively control invasive vertebrates.
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              Alien Reptiles and Amphibians

              Fred Kraus (2009)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diversity and Distributions
                Divers Distrib
                Wiley
                13669516
                November 2017
                November 2017
                September 08 2017
                : 23
                : 11
                : 1313-1322
                Affiliations
                [1 ]CIBIO/InBIO; Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos; Cátedra Infraestruturas de Portugal-Biodiversidade; Universidade do Porto; Vairão Portugal
                [2 ]Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig; Bonn Germany
                [3 ]Global Health and Tropical Medicine (GHTM); Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT); Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL); Lisboa Portugal
                [4 ]Division of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology; Department of Biodiversity Research; University of Vienna; Vienna Austria
                [5 ]Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F); Frankfurt am Main Germany
                [6 ]School of Biological Sciences and Centre for Conservation Science and Technology (CCoST); The University of Adelaide; North Terrace SA Australia
                [7 ]Landcare Research New Zealand; Lincoln New Zealand
                [8 ]Institute of Botany; Department of Invasion Ecology; The Czech Academy of Sciences; Průhonice Czech Republic
                [9 ]Department of Ecology; Faculty of Science; Charles University in Prague; Prague Czech Republic
                [10 ]Centre for Invasion Biology; Department of Botany and Zoology; Stellenbosch University; Matieland South Africa
                [11 ]IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group; Rome Italy
                [12 ]German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig; Leipzig Germany
                Article
                10.1111/ddi.12617
                17bd4099-06f0-498c-aa0d-4b030bb8831e
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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